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About TAPPI Journal

An internationally recognized technical publication for over 60 years, TAPPI Journal (TJ) publishes the latest and most relevant research on the forest products and related industries in digital format. A stringent peer-review process and distinguished editorial board of academic and industry experts set TAPPI Journal apart as a reliable source for impactful basic and applied research and technical reviews. TAPPI Journal is now Open Access. Read more.

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Editorial: PFAS—Intersections with the pulp and paper industry, TAPPI Journal March 2021

March 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: At the 2019 PEERS Conference in St. Louis, I sat in on a talk concerning the use of fluoropolyomers for welding and reparing of Flexible pipe.

Incorporation of post-consumer pizza boxes in the recovered fiber stream: Impacts of grease on finished product quality, TAPPI Journal March 2021

March 11, 2021

ABSTRACT: Grease and cheese contamination of used pizza boxes has led to misunderstanding and controversy about the recyclability of pizza boxes. Some collection facilities accept pizza boxes while others do not. The purpose of this study is to determine whether typical grease or cheese contamination levels associated with pizza boxes impact finished product quality. Grease (from vegetable oil) and cheese are essentially hydrophobic and in sufficiently high concentration could interfere with interfiber bonding, resulting in paper strength loss.Findings from this study will be used to determine the viability of recycling pizza boxes at current and future con-centrations in old corrugated containers (OCC) recovered fiber streams. These findings will also be used to inform the acceptability of pizza boxes in the recycle stream and educate consumers about acceptable levels of grease or cheese residue found on these recycled boxes.

Boiler retrofit improves efficiency and increases biomass firing rates, TAPPI Journal March 2021

March 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Domtar’s fluff pulp mill in Plymouth, NC, USA, operates two biomass/hog fuel fired boilers (HFBs). For energy consolidation and reliability improvement, Domtar wanted to decommission the No. 1 HFB and refurbish/retrofit the No. 2 HFB. The No. 2 HFB was designed to burn pulverized coal and/or biomass on a traveling grate. The steaming capacity was 500,000 lb/h from coal and 400,000 lb/h from biomass. However, it had never sustained this design biomass steaming rate. As the sole power boiler, the No. 2 HFB would need to sustain 400,000 lb/h of biomass steam during peak loads. An extensive evaluation by a combustion and boiler technologies supplier was undertaken. The evaluation involved field testing, analysis, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, and it identified several bottle-necks and deficiencies to achieving the No. 2 HFB’s biomass steam goal. These bottlenecks included an inadequate combustion system; insufficient heat capture; excessive combustion air temperature; inadequate sweetwater con-denser (SWC) capacity; and limited induced draft fan capacity.To address the identified deficiencies, various upgrades were engineered and implemented. These upgrades included modern pneumatic fuel distributors; a modern sidewall, interlaced overfire air (OFA) system; a new, larger economizer; modified feedwater piping to increase SWC capacity; replacement of the scrubber with a dry electrostatic precipitator; and upgraded boiler controls.With the deployment of these upgrades, the No. 2 HFB achieved the targeted biomass steaming rate of 400,000 lb/h, along with lowered stack gas and combustion air temperatures. All mandated emissions limit tests at 500,000 lb/h of steam with 400,000 lb/h of biomass steam were passed, and Domtar reports a 10% reduction in fuel firing rates, which represents significant fuel savings. In addition, the mill was able to decommission the No. 1 HFB, which has substantially lowered operating and maintenance costs.

Extension of a steady-state chlorine dioxide brightening model for Z-ECF bleaching of softwood kraft pulps, TAPPI Journal March 2021

March 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Earlier studies developed a steady-state model to predict the brightness and/or bleach consumption during the chlorine dioxide brightening (D1) of softwood pulps produced by conventional elemental-chlorine-free (ECF) sequences. This model relates the chlorine dioxide consumed to the brightness gains predicated upon an asymptotic D1 brightness limit, an incoming D1 pulp brightness, and an equation parameter (ß11). The current investigation examines the application of this model to ECF sequences that use ozone delignification (Z-ECF). Literature D1 data from various Z-ECF bleaching studies, which investigated OZ, OD0/Z, and OZ/D0 delignification, were fitted to the model. The ß11 parameter was found to be linearly correlated to the entering kappa number. Interestingly, this linear relationship was found to be identical to the relationships observed when modeling the D1 stage for conventional ECF and chlorine-based bleach sequences. Subtle differences in D1 brightening response in the model among the various bleach sequences are reflected by incoming pulp brightness (at the same kappa number). The current model is used to illustrate how alterations to Z-ECF delignification affect D1 brightening and chlorine dioxide consumption.

Development of converging-diverging multi-jet nozzles for molten smelt shattering in kraft recovery boilers, TAPPI Journal March 2021

March 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: The effective shattering of molten smelt is highly desired in recovery boiler systems. Ideally, shatter jet nozzle designs should: i) generate high shattering energy; ii) create a wide coverage; and iii) minimize steam consumption. This study proposes a novel converging-diverging multi-jet nozzle design to achieve these goals. A laboratory setup was established, and the nozzle performance was evaluated by generating jet pressure profiles from the measurement of a pitot tube array. The results show that the shatter jet strength is greater with a large throat diameter, high inlet pressure, and a short distance between the nozzle exit and impingement position. Increasing the number of orifices generates a wider jet coverage, and the distance between the orifices should be limited to avoid the formation of a low-pressure region between the orifices. The study also demonstrates that an optimized converging-diverging multi-jet nozzle significantly outperformed a conventional shatter jet nozzle by achieving higher energy and wider coverage while consuming less steam.

Black liquor evaporator upgrades— life cycle cost analysis, TAPPI Journal March 2021

March 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Black liquor evaporation is generally the most energy intensive unit operation in a pulp and paper manufacturing facility. The black liquor evaporators can represent a third or more of the total mill steam usage, followed by the paper machine and digester. Evaporator steam economy is defined as the unit mass of steam required to evaporate a unit mass of water from black liquor (i.e., lb/lb or kg/kg.) The economy is determined by the number of effects in an evaporator train and the system configuration. Older systems use four to six effects, most of which are the long tube vertical rising film type. Newer systems may be designed with seven or even eight effects using falling film and forced circulation crystallization technology for high product solids. The median age of all North American evaporator systems is 44 years. Roughly 25% of the current North American operating systems are 54 years or older. Older systems require more periodic maintenance and have a higher risk of unplanned downtime. Also, older systems have chronic issues with persistent liquor and vapor leaks, shell wall thinning, corrosion, and plugged tubes. Often these issues worsen to the point of requiring rebuild or replacement. When considering the age, technology, and lower efficiency of older systems, a major rebuild or new system may be warranted. The intent of this paper is to review the current state of black liquor evaporator systems in North America and present a basic method for determining whether a major rebuild or new installation is warrant-ed using total life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).