About TAPPI Journal
An internationally recognized technical publication for over 60 years, TAPPI Journal (TJ) publishes the latest and most relevant research on the forest products and related industries in digital format. A stringent peer-review process and distinguished editorial board of academic and industry experts set TAPPI Journal apart as a reliable source for impactful basic and applied research and technical reviews. TAPPI Journal is now Open Access. Read more.
May 01, 2021
ABSTRACT: While medical science in fields like virology blazed a path in 2020 in developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and treatments to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, other scientific research slowed significantly.
Peracetate/singlet oxygen chemistry used in post-bleaching of kraft pulp as a practical oxidant for paper machines, TAPPI Journal May 2021
May 01, 2021
ABSTRACT: The use of a novel sodium peracetate/singlet oxygen chemistry for brightening bleached kraft pulp shows exciting potential for technical performance, supply logistics, safety, and cost reduction. Potential chemical carryover to the paper machine raises questions about whether peracetate will impact paper machine performance, such as metal corrosion, useful press felt life, and interference with existing biocide programs or paper machine chemistry. Sodium peracetate/singlet oxygen chemistry can be used in high-density storage chests for brightening/whitening and to increase color stability. Any oxidant used directly before the paper machine has the possibility of impacting paper machine operations. Traditional oxidants used in bleaching, such as chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, are known to cause corrosion on machinery metals and press felts. Hydrogen peroxide residuals can interfere with common biocide programs. Traditional oxidants used in biocide treatments themselves significantly degrade press felt life when the rule-of-thumb concentration thresholds are exceeded. Sodium peracetate is evaluated in this paper for its impact on nylon press felt fiber degradation, metal corrosion, and interference with typical biocide programs.Laboratory results indicate that sodium peracetate/singlet oxygen chemistry is less corrosive than chlorine, bromine, and hydrogen peroxide on press felt nylon fiber and can therefore be used at higher levels than those chemistries to increase brightness without increasing negative downstream impact. Sodium peracetate can also be used with current biocide programs without negative impacts such as consumptive degradation. Higher residuals of peracetate going to the paper machine may be useful as a biocide itself and can complement existing programs, allowing those programs to stay within their safe operating levels and thereby extend press felt useful life.
May 01, 2021
ABSTRACT: There has been very little knowledge about the state of gas dispersion in the oxygen delignification process, even though this has a major impact on the performance of the reactor. This paper presents a new continu-ous inline method for measuring oxygen bubble size distribution in the reactor, as well as results from studies con-ducted in softwood and hardwood lines. This new measurement worked well, and new information about oxygen bubble size, as well as how different reactor conditions affected the distribution, was obtained. For example:œ In the softwood line, the mean volume-weighted bubble size was about 0.1 mm, whereas in the hardwood line, this size was almost 10 times higher. For both lines, there was considerable variation in the measured bubble size over the long term.œ For both lines, an increase in mixer rotation speed caused a discernible decrease in the bubble size, and an increase in oxygen charge caused a discernible increase in the bubble size.œ In the softwood line, no coalescence of the bubbles in the reactor was observed, but in the hardwood line, some coalescence of the larger bubbles occurred.œ In the test conducted in the hardwood line, the use of brownstock washer defoamer caused a discernible increase in oxygen bubble size.œ In the hardwood line, reactor pressure had a noticeable effect on the amount of delignification, which indicated that improving mass transfer of oxygen (e.g., by decreasing the oxygen bubble size, in this case) should also have an increasing effect on the delignification.
May 01, 2021
ABSTRACT: Oxygen delignification is an essential part of the pulp production process. Delignification occurs with the aid of alkali and dissolved oxygen. Dissolved oxygen is obtained by dispersing oxygen gas into the pulp suspension by using efficient mixers. Little is known about the state of oxygen gas dispersion and its effect on oxygen delignification kinetics and efficiency. This paper will present the results for the effect of gas bubble size on the performance of oxygen delignification. The results are mainly based on detailed studies made in a Finnish hardwood mill where the oxygen bubble size distribution could be altered at the feed of the reactor. An essential aspect of these studies was the use of a new continuous inline gas bubble size measurement system to simultaneously determine the bubble size distribution at the feed and top of the reactor. Information about oxygen consumption in the reactor could also be obtained through the bubble size measurements. Accordingly, these studies quantify the effect of oxygen bubble size on the kappa reduction of the pulp. The effect of different chemical factors on the oxygen bubble size is also studied.Finally, the relationship between the gas bubble size and the liquid phase oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is presented. This connects the bubble size to the kappa reduction rate. Based on the presented modeling approach and the evaluation of practical factors that are not taken into account in the modeling, it was concluded that the volumetric average oxygen bubble size should preferably be smaller than 0.2 mm in practice.The information obtained with the new gas bubble size measurement system and the presented modeling approach give a very new basis for understanding, monitoring, adjusting, and designing oxygen delignification processes.
Impact and feasibility of a membrane pre-concentration step in kraft recovery, TAPPI Journal May 2021
May 01, 2021
ABSTRACT: Emerging robust membrane systems can perform the first section of black liquor (BL) concentration by separating clean water from the black liquor stream using only mechanical pressure. By doing so, they can reduce the steam and energy required for BL concentration. Because of the high osmotic pressure of strong BL, a membrane system would not replace evaporators but would operate in series, performing the first section of BL concentration. In this work, we use a multi-effect evaporator (MEE) model to quantify the steam and energy savings associated with installing membrane systems of different sizes. When maintaining a constant BL solids throughput, we find that a pulp mill could reduce steam usage in its evaporators by up to 65%. Alternatively, a membrane system could also serve to increase BL throughput of the recovery train. We find that a membrane system capable of concentrating BL to 25% could double the BL solids throughput of a mill’s evaporators at the same steam usage. We also demonstrate that installing a membrane system before an MEE would minimally affect key operating parameters such as steam pressures and BL solids concentrations in each effect. This indicates that installing a membrane pre-concentration system would be nonintrusive to a mill’s operations.