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Journal articles
Magazine articles
Open Access
A novel predictive method for filler coflocculation with cellulose microfibrils, TAPPI Journal November 2019

ABSTRACT: Different strategies aimed at reducing the negative impact of fillers on paper strength have been the objective of many studies during the past few decades. Some new strategies have even been patented or commercialized, yet a complete study on the behavior of the filler flocs and their effect on retention, drainage, and formation has not been found in literature. This type of research on fillers is often limited by difficulties in simulating high levels of shear at laboratory scale similar to those at mill scale. To address this challenge, a combination of techniques was used to compare preflocculation (i.e., filler is flocculated before addition to the pulp) with coflocculation strategies (i.e., filler is mixed with a binder and flocculated before addition to the pulp). The effect on filler and fiber flocs size was studied in a pilot flow loop using focal beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and image analysis. Flocs obtained with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and benonite were shown to have similar shear resistance with both strategies, whereas cationic starch (CS) was clearly more advantageous when coflocculation strategy was used. The effect of flocculation strategy on drainage rate, STFI formation, ash retention, and standard strength properties was measured. Coflocculation of filler with CPAM plus bentonite or CS showed promising results and produced sheets with high strength but had a negative impact on wire dewatering, opening a door for further optimization.

Journal articles
Magazine articles
Open Access
Wet-end addition of nanofibrillated cellulose pretreated with cationic starch to achieve paper strength with less refining and higher bulk, TAPPI JOURNAL July 2018

Wet-end addition of nanofibrillated cellulose pretreated with cationic starch to achieve paper strength with less refining and higher bulk, TAPPI JOURNAL July 2018

Journal articles
Magazine articles
Open Access
Characterization of the redispersibility of cellulose nanocrystals by particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering, TAPPI Journal April 2019

ABSTRACT: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which are derived from the most abundant and inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose, have received significant interest owing to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. In order to transport CNC products conveniently and efficiently, they are ideally dried and stored as pow-ders using freeze-drying or spray-drying technologies. The redispersibility of CNC powders is quite important for their end use; hence, a convenient method is required to characterize the redispersibility of CNC powders. In this paper, the possibility of characterizing the redispersibility of CNC powders by particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering (DLS) was investigated by comparing the results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and DLS. The particle size obtained with DLS approximately matched that obtained with TEM. Compared with TEM, DLS is a quick and convenient method to measure the particle size distribution of CNCs in water. Two kinds of dispersing methods, sonication and high-speed shearing, and two kinds of CNCs prepared by different methods, sulfuric acid hydrolysis and the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) oxidization method, were used to study the redis-persibility of CNCs. Sonication was more efficient than the high-speed shearing method for nanoscale dispersion of CNC powders in water. CNCs prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis could be more easily redispersed in water than those prepared by TEMPO oxidation.

Journal articles
Magazine articles
Open Access
Priorities for development of standard test methods to support the commercialization of cellulose nanomaterials, TAPPI Journal April 2019

ABSTRACT: With the growing number of producers and users of cellulose nanomaterials (CNMs), there is an increasing need to develop standard test methods to control production and quality of CNMs. In 2014, a Task Group was formed within the ISO Technical Committee 6 Paper, board and pulps to begin addressing the need for standards. This Task Group, TG 1, was tasked with reviewing existing standards and identifying the need for additional standards to characterize CNMs.In March 2018, TG 1 launched a survey to ask CNM producers around the world about the importance of having standard procedures to measure and quantify a variety of CNM properties, both physical and chemical. Producers were asked to identify the type(s) of CNM they produced and their scale of production, and to rank the properties for which they felt standard test methods were most important. In this paper, we summarize the survey responses and identify those properties of highest interest for producers of both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nano- and microfibril-based materials (CNFs/CMFs). Properties of importance can be divided into three broad groups: i) a standard has either been developed or is under develop-ment, ii) a currently used standard could be adapted for use with CNMs, or iii) no standard is currently available and further R&D and consultation with industry is needed before a suitable and well-validated standard can be developed. The paper also examines the challenges of developing new standard methods for some of the key properties—as well as the feasibility and limitations of adapting exiting standards—to CNMs.

Journal articles
Magazine articles
Understanding extensibility of paper: Role of fiber elongation and fiber bonding, TAPPI Journal March 2020

ABSTRACT: The tensile tests of individual bleached softwood kraft pulp fibers and sheets, as well as the micro-mechanical simulation of the fiber network, suggest that only a part of the elongation potential of individual fibers is utilized in the elongation of the sheet. The stress-strain curves of two actual individual pulp fibers and one mimicked classic stress-strain behavior of fiber were applied to a micromechanical simulation of random fiber networks. Both the experimental results and the micromechanical simulations indicated that fiber bonding has an important role not only in determining the strength but also the elongation of fiber networks. Additionally, the results indicate that the shape of the stress-strain curve of individual pulp fibers may have a significant influence on the shape of the stress-strain curve of a paper sheet. A large increase in elongation and strength of paper can be reached only by strengthening fiber-fiber bonding, as demonstrated by the experimental handsheets containing starch and cellulose microfibrils and by the micromechanical simulations. The key conclusion related to this investigation was that simulated uniform inter-fiber bond strength does not influence the shape of the stress-strain curve of the fiber network until the bonds fail, whereas the number of bonds has an influence on the activation of the fiber network and on the shape of the whole stress-strain curve.

Conference papers
Tuning Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystals to Max

Tuning Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystals to Maximize Catalytic Activity, 2017 NANO

Journal articles
Magazine articles
Subscription Access
Understanding extensibility of paper: Role of fiber elongation and fiber bonding, TAPPI Journal March 2020

ABSTRACT: The tensile tests of individual bleached softwood kraft pulp fibers and sheets, as well as the micro-mechanical simulation of the fiber network, suggest that only a part of the elongation potential of individual fibers is utilized in the elongation of the sheet. The stress-strain curves of two actual individual pulp fibers and one mimicked classic stress-strain behavior of fiber were applied to a micromechanical simulation of random fiber networks. Both the experimental results and the micromechanical simulations indicated that fiber bonding has an important role not only in determining the strength but also the elongation of fiber networks. Additionally, the results indicate that the shape of the stress-strain curve of individual pulp fibers may have a significant influence on the shape of the stress-strain curve of a paper sheet. A large increase in elongation and strength of paper can be reached only by strengthening fiber-fiber bonding, as demonstrated by the experimental handsheets containing starch and cellulose microfibrils and by the micromechanical simulations. The key conclusion related to this investigation was that simulated uniform inter-fiber bond strength does not influence the shape of the stress-strain curve of the fiber network until the bonds fail, whereas the number of bonds has an influence on the activation of the fiber network and on the shape of the whole stress-strain curve.

Journal articles
Magazine articles
Open Access
A novel predictive method for filler coflocculation with cellulose microfibrils, TAPPI Journal November 2019

ABSTRACT: Different strategies aimed at reducing the negative impact of fillers on paper strength have been the objective of many studies during the past few decades. Some new strategies have even been patented or commercialized, yet a complete study on the behavior of the filler flocs and their effect on retention, drainage, and formation has not been found in literature. This type of research on fillers is often limited by difficulties in simulating high levels of shear at laboratory scale similar to those at mill scale. To address this challenge, a combination of techniques was used to compare preflocculation (i.e., filler is flocculated before addition to the pulp) with coflocculation strategies (i.e., filler is mixed with a binder and flocculated before addition to the pulp). The effect on filler and fiber flocs size was studied in a pilot flow loop using focal beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and image analysis. Flocs obtained with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and benonite were shown to have similar shear resistance with both strategies, whereas cationic starch (CS) was clearly more advantageous when coflocculation strategy was used. The effect of flocculation strategy on drainage rate, STFI formation, ash retention, and standard strength properties was measured. Coflocculation of filler with CPAM plus bentonite or CS showed promising results and produced sheets with high strength but had a negative impact on wire dewatering, opening a door for further optimization.

Conference papers
Colloidal Chemical Properties of Cellulose NanoFibrils (CNFs

Colloidal Chemical Properties of Cellulose NanoFibrils (CNFs) - Accepted Knowledge, New Boundary Conditions and Challenges, 2017 NANO

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