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Guest Editorial: Addressing nanocellulose commercialization needs: R&D collaboration is vital, TAPPI Journal April 2019

This special edition of TAPPI Journal presents demonstrable progress toward the goal of commercial-scale implementation of nanocellulose. Steve Winter of International Paper and I, as co-leads of the Cellulosic Nanomaterials team of the Alliance for Pulp & Paper Technology Innovation (APPTI), see this widespread engagement of the research community in developing innovations as critical to successful commercialization. Congratulations and thanks to TAPPI and to the researchers publishing in this issue and elsewhere.

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From biorefineries to bioproducts: conversion of pretreated pulp from biorefining streams to lignocellullose nanofibers, TAPPI Journal April 2019

ABSTRACT: This study investigates the use of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis side streams and conver-sion to lignocellulose nanofibers. We used a steam-exploded and partial enzymatic hydrolyzed hardwood pulp and an organosolv pretreated softwood pulp to prepare lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF) via microfluidization. The ener-gies applied on fibrillation were estimated to examine the energy consumption levels of LCNF production. The ener-gy consumptions of the fibrillation processes of the hardwood LCNF production and the softwood LCNF production were about 7040-14080 kWh/ton and 4640 kWh/ton on a dry material basis, respectively. The morphology and dimension of developed hardwood and softwood LCNFs and the stability and rheological behavior of their suspen-sions were investigated and are discussed.

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Nanocellulose in Japan: An industrial perspective, TAPPI Journal April 2019

ABSTRACT: With the maturing of Japan’s economy, domestic demand for paper and paperboard is more likely to level off in the long term. Japanese paper companies are accelerating overseas production, especially in the emerging Asian markets, while strengthening competitiveness of domestic mills and developing new products. In Japan, we have always focused on emerging technologies and driving innovation in the pulp and paper industry. As a business definition, innovation does not equal innovative technology. Innovative technology can become innovation only when it is commercialized and used in industry.

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A new approach for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from bamboo pulp through extremely low acid hydrolysis, TAPPI Journal January 2020

ABSTRACT: As a renewable and biodegradable nanomaterial, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has a wide range of potential applications, but production of CNC faces significant challenges in capital investment and manufacturing cost. In this work, the one-step preparation of CNC from bleached kraft bamboo pulp by extremely low acid (concen-tration of acid = 0.1 wt%) hydrolysis was demonstrated. The experimental data indicated that the yield of CNC was strongly affected by the operating pressure and concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl), as well as temperature. Rod-like CNC with a mean particle size of 524 nm was obtained through an extremely low acid (ELA) hydrolysis pro-cess. The yield of CNC can reach to 37.1% by an ELA hydrolysis process at 180°C for 60 min with 0.08 wt% HCl and 20 MPa operating pressure. The Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements show that the as-pre-pared CNC maintained cellulose structure. Compared with a conventional CNC prepared by strong sulfuric acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis, the CNC prepared by ELA hydrolysis process exhibited much higher thermal stability.

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Open Access
Preparation and characterization of bioactive and breathable

Preparation and characterization of bioactive and breathable polyvinyl alcohol nanowebs using a combinational approach, October 2016 TAPPI JOURNAL

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Papermaking properties of bacterial nanocellulose produced from mother of vinegar, a waste product after classical vinegar production, TAPPI Journal April 2020

ABSTRACT: Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) has gained a lot of attention in recent years due to its nano-size-derived properties. Although it is essentially chemically similar to plant-derived cellulose, it has smaller size and is enriched in free hydroxyl groups, which greatly improve mechanical properties of reinforced paper. However, although BNC has some unique features, it comes at a high price. In this paper, we introduce a new solution for BNC production. We have isolated bacterial nanocellulose directly from agro-industrial waste—mother of vinegar—and used it in the production of paper sheets. We show here that paper sheets made with the addition of only 10% bacterial nanocellulose from mother of vinegar substantially improved basic mechanical as well as printing properties of paper.

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Investigation on the recycling of sulfuric acid from pretreatment of cellulose for nanocellulose preparation, TAPPI JOURNAL February 2020

ABSTRACT: Sulfuric acid is often used to pretreat cellulose prior to homogenization and conversion to nanocellulose. It would be economically significant to reuse the acid to close the overall value chain loop. The target of this work was to investigate the effect of recovery and recycling frequency of sulfuric acid from the pretreatments on the pretreatment yield of water-insoluble cellulose solid residue, and to explore the relationship between the nanocellulose size prepared by recovery of acid and number of cycles. The surface properties of the nanocelluloses were measured, including content of sulfate groups, absolute zeta potential, crystallinity, and thermal stability.

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A new approach for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from bamboo pulp through extremely low acid hydrolysis, TAPPI Journal January 2020

ABSTRACT: As a renewable and biodegradable nanomaterial, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has a wide range of potential applications, but production of CNC faces significant challenges in capital investment and manufacturing cost. In this work, the one-step preparation of CNC from bleached kraft bamboo pulp by extremely low acid (concen-tration of acid = 0.1 wt%) hydrolysis was demonstrated. The experimental data indicated that the yield of CNC was strongly affected by the operating pressure and concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl), as well as temperature. Rod-like CNC with a mean particle size of 524 nm was obtained through an extremely low acid (ELA) hydrolysis pro-cess. The yield of CNC can reach to 37.1% by an ELA hydrolysis process at 180°C for 60 min with 0.08 wt% HCl and 20 MPa operating pressure. The Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements show that the as-pre-pared CNC maintained cellulose structure. Compared with a conventional CNC prepared by strong sulfuric acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis, the CNC prepared by ELA hydrolysis process exhibited much higher thermal stability.

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A novel predictive method for filler coflocculation with cellulose microfibrils, TAPPI Journal November 2019

ABSTRACT: Different strategies aimed at reducing the negative impact of fillers on paper strength have been the objective of many studies during the past few decades. Some new strategies have even been patented or commercialized, yet a complete study on the behavior of the filler flocs and their effect on retention, drainage, and formation has not been found in literature. This type of research on fillers is often limited by difficulties in simulating high levels of shear at laboratory scale similar to those at mill scale. To address this challenge, a combination of techniques was used to compare preflocculation (i.e., filler is flocculated before addition to the pulp) with coflocculation strategies (i.e., filler is mixed with a binder and flocculated before addition to the pulp). The effect on filler and fiber flocs size was studied in a pilot flow loop using focal beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and image analysis. Flocs obtained with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and benonite were shown to have similar shear resistance with both strategies, whereas cationic starch (CS) was clearly more advantageous when coflocculation strategy was used. The effect of flocculation strategy on drainage rate, STFI formation, ash retention, and standard strength properties was measured. Coflocculation of filler with CPAM plus bentonite or CS showed promising results and produced sheets with high strength but had a negative impact on wire dewatering, opening a door for further optimization.