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Editorial: Nanocellulose: What's next?

Many of the researchers in this field in the late 1990s and early 2000s were challenged in terms of translation research issues due to the limited production capacity of nanocellulosics on a global stage. To address this call, several pilot-plant production plants have been developed and can now deliver NC on multikilo/ton scale as these issues are gradually being resolved.

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Guest Editorial: Addressing nanocellulose commercialization needs: R&D collaboration is vital, TAPPI Journal April 2019

This special edition of TAPPI Journal presents demonstrable progress toward the goal of commercial-scale implementation of nanocellulose. Steve Winter of International Paper and I, as co-leads of the Cellulosic Nanomaterials team of the Alliance for Pulp & Paper Technology Innovation (APPTI), see this widespread engagement of the research community in developing innovations as critical to successful commercialization. Congratulations and thanks to TAPPI and to the researchers publishing in this issue and elsewhere.

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Nanocellulose in Japan: An industrial perspective, TAPPI Journal April 2019

ABSTRACT: With the maturing of Japan’s economy, domestic demand for paper and paperboard is more likely to level off in the long term. Japanese paper companies are accelerating overseas production, especially in the emerging Asian markets, while strengthening competitiveness of domestic mills and developing new products. In Japan, we have always focused on emerging technologies and driving innovation in the pulp and paper industry. As a business definition, innovation does not equal innovative technology. Innovative technology can become innovation only when it is commercialized and used in industry.

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A new approach for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from bamboo pulp through extremely low acid hydrolysis, TAPPI Journal January 2020

ABSTRACT: As a renewable and biodegradable nanomaterial, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has a wide range of potential applications, but production of CNC faces significant challenges in capital investment and manufacturing cost. In this work, the one-step preparation of CNC from bleached kraft bamboo pulp by extremely low acid (concen-tration of acid = 0.1 wt%) hydrolysis was demonstrated. The experimental data indicated that the yield of CNC was strongly affected by the operating pressure and concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl), as well as temperature. Rod-like CNC with a mean particle size of 524 nm was obtained through an extremely low acid (ELA) hydrolysis pro-cess. The yield of CNC can reach to 37.1% by an ELA hydrolysis process at 180°C for 60 min with 0.08 wt% HCl and 20 MPa operating pressure. The Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements show that the as-pre-pared CNC maintained cellulose structure. Compared with a conventional CNC prepared by strong sulfuric acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis, the CNC prepared by ELA hydrolysis process exhibited much higher thermal stability.

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Preparation and characterization of bioactive and breathable

Preparation and characterization of bioactive and breathable polyvinyl alcohol nanowebs using a combinational approach, October 2016 TAPPI JOURNAL

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Fabrication of cross-linked starch-based nanofibrous mat with optimized diameter, TAPPI JOURNAL June 2019

ABSTRACT: The design and synthesis of natural and synthetic polymer blends have received recent and wide attention. These new biomaterials exhibit progress in properties required in the field of medicine and healthcare. Herein, the aim of present study is to fabricate starch (ST)/polyacrylic acid (PAA) electrospun nanofibrous mat with a smooth and uniform morphology, lowest fiber diameter (below 100 nm) and the highest possible starch content. Starch itself is poor in process-ability, and its electrospinning could be quite a challenging process. To address this, we carried out the response surface methodology (RSM) technique for modelling the electrospinning process. In order to have ST/PAA nanofibers with the finest possible diameter, optimized processing parameters (applied volt-age, nozzle-collector distance and feed rate) obtained from RSM technique were applied. ST/PAA electrospun nano-fibers with an average diameter of 74±13 nm were successfully achieved via the electrospinning method for the first time. The structure, preparation and properties of the nanofibrous structure were discussed. Results indicated that drug loaded ST/PAA blend nanofibrous structure has a great potential to be used in controlled drug release systems.

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A new approach for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from bamboo pulp through extremely low acid hydrolysis, TAPPI Journal January 2020

ABSTRACT: As a renewable and biodegradable nanomaterial, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has a wide range of potential applications, but production of CNC faces significant challenges in capital investment and manufacturing cost. In this work, the one-step preparation of CNC from bleached kraft bamboo pulp by extremely low acid (concen-tration of acid = 0.1 wt%) hydrolysis was demonstrated. The experimental data indicated that the yield of CNC was strongly affected by the operating pressure and concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl), as well as temperature. Rod-like CNC with a mean particle size of 524 nm was obtained through an extremely low acid (ELA) hydrolysis pro-cess. The yield of CNC can reach to 37.1% by an ELA hydrolysis process at 180°C for 60 min with 0.08 wt% HCl and 20 MPa operating pressure. The Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements show that the as-pre-pared CNC maintained cellulose structure. Compared with a conventional CNC prepared by strong sulfuric acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis, the CNC prepared by ELA hydrolysis process exhibited much higher thermal stability.

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A novel predictive method for filler coflocculation with cellulose microfibrils, TAPPI Journal November 2019

ABSTRACT: Different strategies aimed at reducing the negative impact of fillers on paper strength have been the objective of many studies during the past few decades. Some new strategies have even been patented or commercialized, yet a complete study on the behavior of the filler flocs and their effect on retention, drainage, and formation has not been found in literature. This type of research on fillers is often limited by difficulties in simulating high levels of shear at laboratory scale similar to those at mill scale. To address this challenge, a combination of techniques was used to compare preflocculation (i.e., filler is flocculated before addition to the pulp) with coflocculation strategies (i.e., filler is mixed with a binder and flocculated before addition to the pulp). The effect on filler and fiber flocs size was studied in a pilot flow loop using focal beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and image analysis. Flocs obtained with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and benonite were shown to have similar shear resistance with both strategies, whereas cationic starch (CS) was clearly more advantageous when coflocculation strategy was used. The effect of flocculation strategy on drainage rate, STFI formation, ash retention, and standard strength properties was measured. Coflocculation of filler with CPAM plus bentonite or CS showed promising results and produced sheets with high strength but had a negative impact on wire dewatering, opening a door for further optimization.

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Characterization of the redispersibility of cellulose nanocrystals by particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering, TAPPI Journal April 2019

ABSTRACT: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which are derived from the most abundant and inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose, have received significant interest owing to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. In order to transport CNC products conveniently and efficiently, they are ideally dried and stored as pow-ders using freeze-drying or spray-drying technologies. The redispersibility of CNC powders is quite important for their end use; hence, a convenient method is required to characterize the redispersibility of CNC powders. In this paper, the possibility of characterizing the redispersibility of CNC powders by particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering (DLS) was investigated by comparing the results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and DLS. The particle size obtained with DLS approximately matched that obtained with TEM. Compared with TEM, DLS is a quick and convenient method to measure the particle size distribution of CNCs in water. Two kinds of dispersing methods, sonication and high-speed shearing, and two kinds of CNCs prepared by different methods, sulfuric acid hydrolysis and the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) oxidization method, were used to study the redis-persibility of CNCs. Sonication was more efficient than the high-speed shearing method for nanoscale dispersion of CNC powders in water. CNCs prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis could be more easily redispersed in water than those prepared by TEMPO oxidation.

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Priorities for development of standard test methods to support the commercialization of cellulose nanomaterials, TAPPI Journal April 2019

ABSTRACT: With the growing number of producers and users of cellulose nanomaterials (CNMs), there is an increasing need to develop standard test methods to control production and quality of CNMs. In 2014, a Task Group was formed within the ISO Technical Committee 6 Paper, board and pulps to begin addressing the need for standards. This Task Group, TG 1, was tasked with reviewing existing standards and identifying the need for additional standards to characterize CNMs.In March 2018, TG 1 launched a survey to ask CNM producers around the world about the importance of having standard procedures to measure and quantify a variety of CNM properties, both physical and chemical. Producers were asked to identify the type(s) of CNM they produced and their scale of production, and to rank the properties for which they felt standard test methods were most important. In this paper, we summarize the survey responses and identify those properties of highest interest for producers of both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nano- and microfibril-based materials (CNFs/CMFs). Properties of importance can be divided into three broad groups: i) a standard has either been developed or is under develop-ment, ii) a currently used standard could be adapted for use with CNMs, or iii) no standard is currently available and further R&D and consultation with industry is needed before a suitable and well-validated standard can be developed. The paper also examines the challenges of developing new standard methods for some of the key properties—as well as the feasibility and limitations of adapting exiting standards—to CNMs.