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Kraft pulp bleaching with a P-stage catalyzed by both bicarbonate and TAED, TAPPI Journal July 2019

ABSTRACT: Peroxide bleaching of softwood and hardwood (eucalypt) kraft pulps was performed in solutions of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The conventional P stage (hydrogen peroxide + sodium hydroxide; H2O2 + NaOH) was the most effective brightening system without an additional activator. However, peroxide activation by bicarbonate anion (HCO3•) was obvious in all cases where NaHCO3 or Na2CO3 was used. When N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) was added to the bleaching sys-tem, Na2CO3 as the alkali source afforded equal or slightly higher bleached brightness compared to NaOH usage for both the softwood and hardwood pulps. This outcome is attributed to simultaneous peroxide activation by HCO3• and TAED. When applied to the eucalypt pulp, the H2O2/Na2CO3/TAED bleaching system also decreased the bright-ness loss due to thermal reversion.

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Development of a fast brightness testing method for mechanical pulp based on microwave oven drying, TAPPI Journal June 2020

ABSTRACT: Brightness is an important quality parameter for pulp products, and it is important to have reliable measurement of pulp brightness in a timely manner for process control and/or quality control purposes. In these circumstances, a quick testing method for pulp brightness is highly desirable.A rapid handsheet brightness testing method for lignin-rich mechanical pulp has been developed, which is based on the use of tap water to make handsheets and microwave ovens to rapidly dry the handsheet. Microwave oven fast drying decreased the handsheet brightness of mechanical pulp by 5•6 points due to the lignin-originated discol-oration reactions. The spray of ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions to the handsheet can effectively inhibit these lignin discoloration reactions.With 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.2% EDTA spraying on the wet pulp handsheet, the brightness of the handsheet from a peroxide-bleached stone groundwood pulp after the microwave oven fast drying method was similar to that obtained from the same pulp but following TAPPI Standard Test Method T 272 sp-12 “Forming handsheets for reflectance testing of pulp (sheet machine procedure)”. The effect of handsheet dryness on the handsheet brightness was also studied, and the results showed that the brightness reading was almost constant in the dryness range of 70% to 90%. The method developed is a reliable, fast brightness testing method for lignin-rich pulp that is of practical interest in industrial operations.

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Integrated study of flue gas flow and superheating process in a recovery boiler using computational fluid dynamics and 1D-process modeling, TAPPI Journal June 2020

ABSTRACT: Superheaters are the last heat exchangers on the steam side in recovery boilers. They are typically made of expensive materials due to the high steam temperature and risks associated with ash-induced corrosion. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the steam properties and material temperature distribution is essential for improving the energy efficiency, cost efficiency, and safety of recovery boilers. In this work, for the first time, a comprehensive one-dimensional (1D) process model (1D-PM) for a superheated steam cycle is developed and linked with a full-scale three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the superheater region flue gas flow. The results indicate that: (1) the geometries of headers and superheater platens affect platen-wise steam mass flow rate distribution (3%•7%); and (2) the CFD solution of the 3D flue gas flow field and platen heat flux distribution coupled with the 1D-PM affect the platen-wise steam superheating temperature (45%•122%) and material temperature distribution (1%•6%). Moreover, it is also found that the commonly-used uniform heat flux distribution approach for the superheating process is not accurate, as it does not consider the effect of flue gas flow field in the superheater region. These new observations clearly demonstrate the value of the present integrated CFD/1D-PM modeling approach.

Journal articles
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Open Access
Improving the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of c

Improving the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of chemimechanical pulp by continuous replenishment of bleaching chemicals, TAPPI JOURNAL June 2017

Journal articles
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Open Access
Editorial: 2018 TAPPI Journal features diverse content, TAPPI Journal November 2018

Editorial: 2018 TAPPI Journal features diverse content, TAPPI Journal November 2018

Journal articles
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Open Access
A hundred years of corrosion in the pulp and paper industry, TAPPI JOURNAL May 2018

A hundred years of corrosion in the pulp and paper industry, TAPPI JOURNAL May 2018

Journal articles
Magazine articles
Open Access
A review of green liquor scale formation, TAPPI Journal October 2018

A review of green liquor scale formation, TAPPI Journal October 2018

Journal articles
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Mill experience of calcium carbonate scale formation in green liquor pipelines, TAPPI Journal August 2020

ABSTRACT: Experience of hard calcite (CaCO3) scale formation in green liquor pipelines at four kraft pulp mills was systematically investigated to determine if there is any correlation between the severity of the scaling problem at each mill and the design and operating conditions of its causticizing plant. The results show that the high degree of supersaturation of calcium ions (Ca2+) in the liquor is the main contributing factor. Mills that operate at a lower green liquor total titratable alkali (TTA), higher causticity, and a larger liquor temperature drop are more likely to produce a green liquor that is supersaturated with Ca2+, and thus experience more severe scaling problems. In order to minimize CaCO3 scaling, the green liquor handling equipment should be operated as steady as possible to avoid conditions that allow Ca2+ to be supersaturated. The strategies include minimizing variations in liquor TTA, insulating the green liquor pipelines to reduce temperature gradients, and adding lime mud to weak wash to provide seeds for precipitation to occur on mud particles instead of on metal substrate.

Journal articles
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Open Access
Modeling of the energy of a smelt-water explosion in the recovery boiler dissolving tank, TAPPI Journal August 2020

ABSTRACT: The explosion energy generated as molten smelt droplets interact with water was evaluated as a function of smelt distribution, water temperature, and smelt temperature using a thermodynamic model. The results show that increasing smelt-to-water volume ratio and water temperature significantly increases the explosion energy, converting a larger proportion of the thermal energy of smelt into mechanical work. To reduce the chance of violent smelt-water explosions, it is important to: i) optimize the shatter jet design and operation to uniformly distribute the smelt over a large area in the dissolving tank; ii) avoid high green liquor temperature and ensure adequate liquor mixing; and iii) avoid upsets that may cause heavy smelt runoff or jellyroll smelt.

Journal articles
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Open Access
Wheat straw as an alternative pulp fiber, TAPPI Journal January 2020

ABSTRACT: The desire to market sustainable packaging materials has led to an interest in the use of various fiber types as a raw material. It has been suggested that the use of annual crops for partial replacement of wood fiber would result in more sustainable products. Several life cycle analyses (LCA) have been performed to evaluate these claims. These LCAs provided conflicting and contradictory results because of the local conditions and the specific pulping processes investigated. Selected LCAs are reviewed and the underlying reasons for these conflicting results are analyzed.