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Journal articles
Open Access
Bleaching optimization at WestRock mill in Covington, Virgi

Bleaching optimization at WestRock mill in Covington, Virginia, TAPPI JOURNAL September 2016

Journal articles
Open Access
Using white liquor as the alkali source in oxygen delignific

Using white liquor as the alkali source in oxygen delignification, TAPPI JOURNAL September 2016

Journal articles
Magazine articles
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Wheat straw as an alternative pulp fiber, TAPPI Journal January 2020

ABSTRACT: The desire to market sustainable packaging materials has led to an interest in the use of various fiber types as a raw material. It has been suggested that the use of annual crops for partial replacement of wood fiber would result in more sustainable products. Several life cycle analyses (LCA) have been performed to evaluate these claims. These LCAs provided conflicting and contradictory results because of the local conditions and the specific pulping processes investigated. Selected LCAs are reviewed and the underlying reasons for these conflicting results are analyzed.

Journal articles
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Combatting lime kiln ringing problems at the Arauco Constitución mill, TAPPI Journal July 2020

ABSTRACT: The lime kiln at the Arauco Constitución mill experienced severe ringing problems requiring it to be shut down for ring removal every 3 to 6 months. The mill controlled the problems by blasting ring deposits off during operation with its existing industrial shotgun and a newly installed Cardox liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) cartridge system. Various ring blasting procedures were tested to determine the optimum ring location and thickness to blast; the optimum depth to insert the CO2 cartridge into the kiln; and the most effective blasting frequency and sequence to employ. The best strategy was found to be the weekly blasting operation that alternated between the liquid CO2 cartridge and the industrial shotgun, with the CO2 cartridge inserted into the ring mass, 20 cm (8 in.) away from the refractory brick surface, and the shotgun aimed at rings at about 28 m (92 ft) from the kiln discharge end. With each blasting event removing considerably more rings than before, it takes a longer time for rings to rebuild, allowing the kiln to run continuously between annual maintenance shutdowns with only a few short (< 4 h) downtimes for ring removal. This substantially reduces the costs associated with ring removal and lime replacement during unscheduled shutdowns.

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Development of a fast brightness testing method for mechanical pulp based on microwave oven drying, TAPPI Journal June 2020

ABSTRACT: Brightness is an important quality parameter for pulp products, and it is important to have reliable measurement of pulp brightness in a timely manner for process control and/or quality control purposes. In these circumstances, a quick testing method for pulp brightness is highly desirable.A rapid handsheet brightness testing method for lignin-rich mechanical pulp has been developed, which is based on the use of tap water to make handsheets and microwave ovens to rapidly dry the handsheet. Microwave oven fast drying decreased the handsheet brightness of mechanical pulp by 5•6 points due to the lignin-originated discol-oration reactions. The spray of ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions to the handsheet can effectively inhibit these lignin discoloration reactions.With 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.2% EDTA spraying on the wet pulp handsheet, the brightness of the handsheet from a peroxide-bleached stone groundwood pulp after the microwave oven fast drying method was similar to that obtained from the same pulp but following TAPPI Standard Test Method T 272 sp-12 “Forming handsheets for reflectance testing of pulp (sheet machine procedure)”. The effect of handsheet dryness on the handsheet brightness was also studied, and the results showed that the brightness reading was almost constant in the dryness range of 70% to 90%. The method developed is a reliable, fast brightness testing method for lignin-rich pulp that is of practical interest in industrial operations.

Journal articles
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Integrated study of flue gas flow and superheating process in a recovery boiler using computational fluid dynamics and 1D-process modeling, TAPPI Journal June 2020

ABSTRACT: Superheaters are the last heat exchangers on the steam side in recovery boilers. They are typically made of expensive materials due to the high steam temperature and risks associated with ash-induced corrosion. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the steam properties and material temperature distribution is essential for improving the energy efficiency, cost efficiency, and safety of recovery boilers. In this work, for the first time, a comprehensive one-dimensional (1D) process model (1D-PM) for a superheated steam cycle is developed and linked with a full-scale three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the superheater region flue gas flow. The results indicate that: (1) the geometries of headers and superheater platens affect platen-wise steam mass flow rate distribution (3%•7%); and (2) the CFD solution of the 3D flue gas flow field and platen heat flux distribution coupled with the 1D-PM affect the platen-wise steam superheating temperature (45%•122%) and material temperature distribution (1%•6%). Moreover, it is also found that the commonly-used uniform heat flux distribution approach for the superheating process is not accurate, as it does not consider the effect of flue gas flow field in the superheater region. These new observations clearly demonstrate the value of the present integrated CFD/1D-PM modeling approach.

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Alternative “green” lime kiln fuels: Part I—Pulping/recovery byproducts, TAPPI Journal May 2020

ABSTRACT: This paper is the first of a two-part series on “green” lime kiln fuels. The first part of this work reviews the use of pulp mill and recovery byproducts as either full or partial replacement of oil or natural gas in the kiln. The second part reviews the use of various forms of woody biomass, bio-oils, gasification, and hydrogen as potential carbon neutral or carbon-free lime kiln fuels.

Journal articles
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Alternative “green” lime kiln fuels: Part II—Woody biomass, bio-oils, gasification, and hydrogen, TAPPI Journal May 2020

ABSTRACT: This paper is the second of a two-part series on “green” lime kiln fuels. The first part of this work reviews the use of pulp mill and recovery byproducts as either full or partial replacement of oil or natural gas in the kiln. The second part reviews the use of various forms of woody biomass, bio-oils, gasification and hydrogen as potential carbon neutral or carbon-free lime kiln fuels. Several of these options require specialized burners to supply the fuel to the kiln and high-quality metallurgy to withstand the acidic conditions of the fuel.

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How to use total dissolved solids measurements to evaluate the performance of diffuser washers—A mill study, TAPPI Journal April 2020

ABSTRACT: Various types of pulp washing equipment are available. Each washing device has a unique mechanical construction, and the washing principle is often a combination of dilution, thickening, and displacement washing. In this work, the performance of the pressure diffuser washer is studied. In stepwise trials, the effect of the feed and discharge consistencies on the performance of the diffuser was studied. The effect of the downward velocity of the screen on the pressure diffuser’s washing efficiency was also studied. The measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS) by a process refractometer was used as a wash loss measurement unit and the refractometer’s results were used in the calculations of standardized Nordén efficiency (E10) values. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity values were also measured and their results compared to the TDS results.The results indicated that feed consistency has a significant effect on the performance and effectiveness of the diffuser washers in the mill. It can also be stated that when the downward velocity of the screen is adjusted to too high a level, the washing efficiency of the pressure diffuser decreases. As a conclusion from the mill tests, it can be stated that even small process parameter changes can provide enhanced diffuser washing at the beginning of the washing line, which has a direct effect on the performance of post-oxygen washing.

Journal articles
Magazine articles
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Wheat straw as an alternative pulp fiber, TAPPI Journal January 2020

ABSTRACT: The desire to market sustainable packaging materials has led to an interest in the use of various fiber types as a raw material. It has been suggested that the use of annual crops for partial replacement of wood fiber would result in more sustainable products. Several life cycle analyses (LCA) have been performed to evaluate these claims. These LCAs provided conflicting and contradictory results because of the local conditions and the specific pulping processes investigated. Selected LCAs are reviewed and the underlying reasons for these conflicting results are analyzed.