About TAPPI Journal

As of March 2022, TAPPI Journal’s (TJ) publishing model is 100% Open Access (OA) to improve the accessibility of its published articles, increase researcher engagement and make research more visible. This new format helps researchers meet their funding and grant application requirements and potentially increase the number of citations. As in the past, the copyright remains with the author, and unlike other technical journals, TJ does not require a publication fee. Read more.

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Editorial: Shaping industry and career success with TAPPI Standards involvement, TAPPI Journal May 2023

June 01, 2023

ABSTRACT: Within TAPPI, there are many ways to help advance our industry and make sure it thrives for years to come. Writing a research paper for publication or acting as peer reviewer for TAPPI Journal, presenting at a conference or helping to organize one, and becoming involved in the many committees that are part of TAPPI Divisions are just some of the ways. One other very important way to contribute to our industry is through the standards development process.

Comparative analysis and benchmarking of commercial and emerging fast pyrolysis technologies, TAPPI Journal May 2023

June 01, 2023

ABSTRACT: It is well established that producing sustainable fuels and replacing the fossil-based ones is one of the key solutions to achieving net-zero emissions goals. One of the most advanced commercial-scale pathways to biofuels available today is fast pyrolysis. However, due to the need for a supportive regulatory environment and mitigation strategies for uncertainties related to costs and feedstock quality, fast pyrolysis is not yet being widely implemented. In this case study, three fast pyrolysis technologies with a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 and above have been compared to distinguish between them and identify the conditions under which they are economically viable. The circulating fluidized bed (CFB), rotating cone (RC), and mechanically assisted fluidized bed (MFB) fast pyrolysis technologies were considered. First, the flow diagram and a mass and energy balance comparison were addressed. It was revealed that the RC configuration has better bio-oil yields because it can handle smaller particles. The MFB configuration has a progressive condensation unit at the end of the process, which produces a nearly dry oil having a higher energy content. Four implementation scenarios were studied. The first was the fast pyrolysis standalone process, where all options had marginal economic attractiveness, and the RC configuration economically outperformed the other two. Integration of a fast pyrolysis plant into a sawmill in the second scenario was found to bring significant improvements in revenues and internal rate of return (IRR). Realization of the full value of bio-oil (the third scenario) brought significantly more revenues for the MFB. Finally, the fourth scenario involved adding a progressive condensation unit, which increased the capital expenditure (CAPEX) by 3%•4% while increasing revenues by 32%•35%. A sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of financial support towards capital cost and the full valuation of bio-oil for the economic viability of fast pyrolysis processes. Progressive condensation leading to more added-value bio-oil makes the standalone fast pyrolysis process more profitable.

Quantification of the degree of preference for different tissue products based on a hand-felt tissue test panel, TAPPI Journal May 2023

June 01, 2023

ABSTRACT: In this study, we successfully established a quantification model to determine the preference (PF) for different tissue products based on the results of a hand-felt tissue testing panel. The panel ascertained that products designed with four-ply tissues provided higher total tensile strength (TTS) and hand-felt surface softness (HSS) than did those of the three-ply, two-ply, and single-ply products.When practically tested with a tissue softness analyzer (TSA), the four-ply tissue product had a softness (TSA-HF) advantage; however, in human panel tests, more than half of the participants could not be sure of the hand-felt bulk softness (HBS) of the four-ply tissue product. This was mainly because when using the four-ply tissue, the hand-held test pad gave an overall perception distinctly different from those of the hand-held two- or three-ply products, which also differed from the flattened state of test pieces used in the instrumental softness tests. Users could distinctly feel that a product was safer (better TTS) and more comfortable (higher hand-held surface softness). Thus, the four-ply tissue product was accorded a higher preference.

Research on flame-retardant paper prepared by the method of in-pulp addition of ammonium polyphosphate, TAPPI Journal May 2023

June 01, 2023

ABSTRACT: At present, the production of flame-retardant paper usually uses the impregnation method of phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardants in paper. There are few reports on the application of an in-pulp addition method. In this paper, the solubility of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and its effect on flame-retardant paper were investigated for use in an in-pulp addition method. It was found that APP particles were square, with an average particle size of 21.88 µm. The particle size decreased significantly after immersion in water at 25°C for 24 h. Furthermore, most of the APPs were dissolved after immersion in water at 90°C for 0.5 h, and the residuals agglomerated and their shape turned into an amorphous form. The APP possessed strong electronegativity and could partially ionize in water. The solubility of APP was 0.18 g/100 mL water at 25°C and increased quickly when the temperature was higher than 30°C. Therefore, APP should be added to the pulp at temperatures below 30°C. The tensile strength of the paper initially increased with the addition of APP, and it reached the maximum value when the APP content was 10% and then gradually decreased. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of the paper was 28.7% when the added amount of APP was 30% and cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) was 0.08%, reaching the flame-retardant level.

Dissolution of wood components during hot water extraction of spruce, TAPPI Journal May 2023

June 01, 2023

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the autohydrolysis of softwood, which is the main chemical operation in both hot water extraction and steam explosion. Control of the process and monitoring its course were ensured by the careful choice of experimental setup and conditions: a milled spruce material was extracted in a small flow-through reactor to minimize degradation of the dissolved material and to enable analysis of the resulting liquors extracted at selected time points. The obtained liquid and solid fractions were analyzed for sugar composition and acetic acid concentration. The results showed that partially degraded hemicelluloses were extracted; hemicelluloses side chains were cleaved off and detected as monomers, while deacetylation was limited. Chain scissions of cellulose were observed as a result of autohydrolysis.

Paper bending stiffness and web tension measurement from a running web using a vacuum and computer imaging, TAPPI Journal May 2023

June 01, 2023

ABSTRACT: A novel method for measuring the bending stiffness of paper online during manufacturing is introduced. The method uses photometric stereo imaging to detect the shape of the deflection surface caused by a controllable pressure difference over the paper’s surfaces. The hardware for the measurement is based on a combination of two existing sensors, which has accelerated and facilitated the development of the implementation. The deflection and loads are tied together by the governing differential equation for the bending of an orthotropic elastic plate with selected simplifications. An approach to resolve material parameters and in-plane loads without knowledge of traditional boundary conditions is suggested. The presented method was tested in a paper mill during manufacturing. For bending stiffnesses measured online, correlation coefficients 0.88 and 0.92 were obtained compared to state-of-the-art laboratory measurements. However, the results gained from a moving web are noisy and the data requires correction of the slope and an off-set. Although several issues remain to be resolved before the method can be considered as an accurate measurement for industrial use, the theoretical background, the performance of online implementation, and the results are promising. Possible causes for the observed discrepancies and the future development of the method are discussed.