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An internationally recognized technical publication for over 60 years, TAPPI Journal (TJ) publishes the latest and most relevant research on the forest products and related industries. A stringent peer-review process and distinguished editorial board of academic and industry experts set TAPPI Journal apart as a reliable source for impactful basic and applied research and technical reviews. Read more.

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Editorial: A preview of PEERS 2019, TAPPI Journal September 2019

September 01, 2019

ABSTRACT: Coming soon is PEERS • TAPPI’s annual Pulping, Engineering, Environmental, Recycling and Sustainability gathering for industry professionals. Held this October 27-30 in St. Louis, MO, the conference is co-located with the International Bioenergy & Bioproducts Conference (IBBC) and the 12th Research Forum on Recycling. Universities and research organizations from around the world are represented in the conference content, and below is a sampling of just a few of the many presentations that might interest TAPPI Journal readers.

Rheological characteristics of platy kaolin, TAPPI JOURNAL September 2019

September 01, 2019

ABSTRACT: Platy kaolin can provide significant value in the coating of paper and paperboard. It can be used in multiple applications and can provide benefits such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) extension, smoothness improvement, improved print gloss or ink set rates, calendering intensity reduction, and improved barrier properties. It is not a pigment that can be simply substituted for traditional hydrous kaolin without some adjustment to the coating formulation. These adjustments can be as simple as reducing solids, but may require binder changes as well. The coater setup may need to be adjusted because of the unique rheological behaviors these pigments exhibit.The unique rheological characteristics of platy kaolin are explored here. Measurements of the water retention of platy kaolin containing coatings confirm that water retention is not reduced in comparison to more blocky kaolin pigments, despite the lower coating solids at which they need to be run. This means that the rheological characteristics are the most important in understanding the runnability. An extensive analysis reveals some unique behaviors that need to be understood when utilizing these materials. Viscoelastic measurements indicate that, for this binder system, Tan d is mainly a function of solids. This may explain how weeping is initiated on a blade coater. The degree of shear thinning behaviors is investigated using the Ostwald de-Waele power law. The immobilization point was determined using the Dougherty-Krieger equation and related to the work of Weeks at the University of Maine on blade coater runnability. An indirect measure of particle shape and size synergy is also demonstrated using the Dougherty-Krieger equation parameters.

Critical parameters for tall oil separation I: The importance of ration of fatty acids to rosin acids, TAPPI Journal September 2019

September 01, 2019

ABSTRACT: Tall oil is a valuable byproduct in chemical pulping of wood, and its fractions have a large spectrum of applications as chemical precursors, detergents, and fuel. High recovery of tall oil is important for the economic and environmental profile of chemical pulp mills. The purpose of this study was to investigate critical parameters of tall oil separation from black liquor. To investigate this in a controlled way, we developed a model test system using a “synthetic” black liquor (active cooking chemicals OH- and HS- ions), a complete process for soap skimming, and determination of recovered tall oil based on solvent extraction and colorimetric analysis, with good reproducibility. We used the developed system to study the effect of the ratio of fatty acids to rosin acids on tall oil separation. When high amounts of rosin acids were present, tall oil recovery was low, while high content of fatty acids above 60% significantly promoted tall oil separation. Therefore, manipulating the content of fatty acids in black liquor before the soap skimming step can significantly affect the tall oil solubility, and hence its separation. The findings open up chemical ways to improve the tall oil yield.

Flow characteristics of drag-reducing natural bamboo fiber suspensions with minimal environmental load, TAPPI Journal September 2019

September 01, 2019

ABSTRACT: The reduction of pipe friction loss by adding drag-reducing agents has attracted attention as an aid to energy conservation. Drag-reducing agents induce drag reduction (DR) effects and should have a minimal environmental load, with natural resource-saving potential. This study demonstrates bamboo fiber as a drag-reducing agent that saves natural resources and has a low environmental load. Using pressure drop measurements, we report DR with suspensions of bamboo fibers with the average diameter of 13.3 µm and aspect ratio of 98.7. The maximum DR obtained in this experiment is 43% at the concentration of 4000 ppm and pipe diameter of 30 mm; DR is affected by the Reynolds number, suspension concentration, and pipe diameter. In addition, the bamboo fibers can be easily removed from the suspensions by filtration. We found that low-environmental-load bamboo fiber has DR effects like those of other fibers; its effects are greater than those of conventional synthetic fibers and wood pulp. Furthermore, it is resistant to mechanical degradation, recoverable, and recyclable. Therefore, DR effects can be selectively obtained by adding the fibers only when DR is needed; the fibers can then be collected when DR is no longer necessary. This method might greatly expand the application range of DR agents. The results demonstrate the usefulness of bamboo fibers as DR additives.

A new technique for the measurement of show-through mottle of fine paper, TAPPI Journal September 2019

September 01, 2019

ABSTRACT: Mottling within print-through and show-through is caused by the variability of the local optical properties of the sheet. This mottling is visually disturbing and a mark of poor paper quality. The ability to predict print-through mottle of printed paper by measuring show-through mottle on the unprinted sheet would be a valuable asset for paper machine control.We examined the relationship between print-through mottle and show-through mottle. We worked with nine samples of 60 lb. uncoated fine paper (90 g/m2), from various North American paper companies, that were printed on an offset press, 400K (400% Black), on both sides. A show-through mottle instrumental determination technique was developed using an existing Fast Fourier Transform-based algorithm. The nine samples examined were ranked similarly by the visual evaluation of print-through mottle and by the instrumental determination of show-through mottle. We thus established that show-through on the unprinted sheet can be used as a reliable predictor of print-through, therefore saving time and money for papermakers. We also found a significant two-sidedness in show-through for some of the samples.