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About TAPPI Journal

An internationally recognized technical publication for over 60 years, TAPPI Journal (TJ) publishes the latest and most relevant research on the forest products and related industries in digital format. A stringent peer-review process and distinguished editorial board of academic and industry experts set TAPPI Journal apart as a reliable source for impactful basic and applied research and technical reviews. TAPPI Journal is now Open Access. Read more.

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Editorial: Agility and adaptation in a dynamic business world, TAPPI Journal January 2021

January 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: As we move into 2020, it's interesting to look back at the research topics that were covered in TAPPI Journal (TJ) the previous year. Members of the TJ editorial board organized diverse special issues on lignin, coating ,forming, and diverse papermaking and biorefinery topics, which are discussed in the following sections.

Application of foamed additives to the surface of wet handsheets, TAPPI Journal January 2021

January 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: We explored the application of foamed wet-end additives onto wet handsheets to qualify our method of application and to demonstrate the method’s usefulness for prescreening additives and foaming agents for packaging applications.We modified a laboratory drawdown coating machine to allow coating of wet handsheets with foamed additives. Initial sheet solids were adjusted to a target of 8%•25% by vacuum. Foam layer thickness was set mechanically. After application, the foamed additives were drawn into the sheet with vacuum. The additive dosage was adjusted by altering its concentration within the foaming formulation. We evaluated more than 100 foaming agents and 10 strength additives, comparing wet-end and foam-assisted addition with no addition on recycled linerboard and virgin linerboard furnish. Foam-assisted addition typically displayed a much steeper dose-response curve and much higher maximum strength levels than wet-end addition. Our results suggest potential target applications for this technology, such as lightweighting, and improved strength performance in mills with relatively closed water systems, where strength aids added into the wet end are adversely influenced by accumulation of inorganic ions and organic species.

Spraying starch on the Fourdrinier— An option between wet end starch and the size press, TAPPI Journal January 2021

January 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Technology to apply suspensions of starch grains to the wet surface of paper, during the dewatering process, is reviewed. Though the technology is not new, it continues to attract the attention of papermakers as a means to increase bonding strength. Starch grains that are sprayed onto the wet-web of paper can be retained at levels exceeding what can be effectively added to the fiber suspension at the wet end. Unlike adding a starch solution at a size press, no additional drying capacity is required on the paper machine. To be effective, the starch needs to be able to swell and develop bonding during the paper drying process. Paperboard applications with recycled fibers appear to be a good fit. There is potential to increase bonding by processes that favor fuller gelatinization of the starch grains by the time the paper becomes dry.

Understanding wet tear strength at varying moisture content in handsheets, TAPPI Journal January 2021

January 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: A laboratory study was conducted looking at the effects of moisture content on wet tear strength in handsheets. Three different wetting techniques were used to generate the wet tear (Elmendorf-type) data at varying moisture levels, from TAPPI standard conditions (dry) to over 60% moisture content (saturated). Unbleached hardwood and softwood fiber from full-scale kraft pulp production were used. The softwood fiber was refined using a Valley beater to reduce freeness. Handsheets were made with a blend of hardwood and softwood and with refined softwood, without the addition of wet-end chemistry. The resulting grams-force tear data obtained from the test was indexed with basis weight and plotted versus both moisture content and dryness. As moisture content levels in the handsheets increased, the wet tear strength also increased, reaching a critical maximum point. This marked a transition point on the graph where, beyond a critical moisture content level, the tear strength began to decline linearly as moisture increased. This pattern was repeated in handsheets made from a blend of hardwood and softwood and from 100% refined softwood.

The effect of contact time between CPAM and colloidal silica on the flocculation behavior in the approach flow, TAPPI Journal January 2021

January 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Multicomponent wet-end systems have become increasingly common in papermaking, with the objective of improving the retention-formation-dewatering relationship. It is quite common to use at least a cationic polymer, often in combination with an anionic microparticle. In some cases, a fixative is also used. However, there is still debate on the optimal implementation of these systems. In particular, optimizing the contact time of the cationic polymer prior to addition of the anionic microparticle is still poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the effect of the contact time of a cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) prior to addition of colloidal silica on the flocculation response in a flowing fiber suspension. The effect of using a fixative is also investigated. Focused beam reflectance measurements (FBRM) are combined with zeta-potential measurements for optimizing the addition levels of a two- and three-component system, as well as for elucidating the effect of contact time on CPAM performance. Trials are then performed on a pilot scale flow loop, where the time between addition of these two components is varied and the resulting flocculation response is characterized using high-speed filming and image analysis techniques. It is shown that the efficacy of CPAM can be improved through use of a fixative and that a longer CPAM contact time may be beneficial in terms of immediate flocculation; however, hydrodynamic shear tends to dominate the flocculation response regardless of contact time due to floc rupture.

Co-ground mineral/microfibrillated cellulose composite materials: Recycled fibers, engineered minerals, and new product forms, TAPPI Journal January 2021

January 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: When pulp and minerals are co-processed in suspension, the mineral acts as a grinding aid, allowing costeffective production of mineral/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) composite materials. This processing uses robust milling equipment and is practiced at industrial scale. The resulting products can be used in many applications, including as wet- and dry-strength aids in paper and board production.Previously, we have reported that use of these MFC composite materials in fiber-based applications allow generally improved wet and dry mechanical properties with concomitant opportunities for cost savings, property improvements, or grade developments. Mineral/MFC composites made with recycled pulp feedstocks were shown to offer at least equivalent strength aid performance to composites made using virgin fibers. Selection of mineral and fiber allows preparation of mineral/MFC composites with a range of properties. For example, the viscosity of such formulations was shown to be controlled by the shape factor of the mineral chosen, effective barrier formulations were prepared, and mineral/MFC composites with graphite as the mineral were prepared.High-solids mineral/MFC composites were prepared at 75% total solids (37% fibril solids). When resuspended and used for papermaking, these high-solids products gave equivalent performance to never-dried controls.

The effect of microfibrillated cellulose on the wet-web strength of paper, TAPPI Journal January 2021

January 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: The wet-web strength of paper immediately after the press section of a paper machine is a critical factor in determining machine runnability. However, it is difficult to determine at commercial scale, because the web has to be broken and production interrupted in order to obtain a sample for measurement. The use of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is believed to increase wet-web strength, as it has allowed filler level increases of 10% or more on many commercial paper machines. In this paper, we describe a laboratory method for estimating the effect of MFC on wet sheet strength after press-ing, as well as actual measurements of wet-web strength from a pilot paper machine trial. These experiments have demonstrated the positive effect of MFC. At solids contents in the range typically observed after pressing, sheets with MFC at fixed filler content are significantly stronger, but also wetter, than those without it. When the use of MFC is combined with a typical increase in filler content, the wet web remains slightly stronger, but also becomes drier than the reference condition. These results are compatible with the theory put forward by van de Ven that wet-web strength is mainly a result of friction between entangled fibers, and they also suggest that the presence of MFC increases this friction.