TAPPI Journal Archive

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As of March 2022, TAPPI Journal’s (TJ) publishing model is 100% Open Access (OA) to improve the accessibility of its published articles, increase researcher engagement and make research more visible. This new format helps researchers meet their funding and grant application requirements and potentially increase the number of citations. As in the past, the copyright remains with the author, and unlike other technical journals, TJ does not require a publication fee. Read more.

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Editorial: TAPPI Journal Best Research Paper for 2023 focuses on black liquor concentration using graphene oxide membranes, TAPPI Journal February 2024

February 01, 2024

ABSTRACT: TAPPI and the TAPPI Journal (TJ) Editorial Board would like congratulate the authors of the 2023 TAPPI Journal Best Research Paper Award and Honghi Tran Prize: Sam Rae, Ella V. Richards, Max Kleiman-Lynch, Brent D. Keller, and Brandon I. Macdonald. Their paper, “Pilot scale black liquor concentration using pressure driven membrane separation,” appeared on p. 223 of the April 2023 issue. This kraft recovery cycle research was recognized by the TAPPI Journal Editorial Board for its innovation, creativity, scientific merit, and clear expression of ideas.

Effects of tissue additives on copy paper forming and properties, TAPPI Journal February 2024

February 01, 2024

ABSTRACT: Laboratory tests were conducted in an effort to determine the effects on paper machine process attributes and the properties of paper made from recycled copy paper furnish upon the addition of chemical agents that are commonly used in the production of hygiene tissue products. Due to continuing growth in tissue and towel grades of paper, such agents are experiencing greater usage. Charge titration test results revealed that certain dry strength agents associated with tissue manufacturing have the potential to shift the balance of charge in papermaking furnish to less negative or even positive values. Creping adhesive was found to contribute to fine particle retention, especially when present at relatively high levels. Release aid and a polyacrylate dispersant had the opposite effect. Low addition levels of both a creping adhesive and a debonding agent surprisingly increased a wide range of strength attributes of paper handsheets in comparison to sheets prepared from unaltered recycled copy paper furnish. The debonding agent decreased paper strength at higher levels of addition. Such effects appear to depend not only on the expected effects of agents themselves, but also on how they affect the charge balance of the wet-end system.

Effects of carboxymethyl starch as a papermaking additive, TAPPI Journal February 2024

February 01, 2024

ABSTRACT: Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is a bio-based, anionic polymer that has potential as part of a dry-strength additive program for papermaking. Due to its negative charge, its effects can be expected to depend on its interactions with various cationic agents. In this work, the effects of CMS were observed following its sequential addition after one of three selected cationic strength agents at different dosage levels. In selected tests, the furnish was pretreated at the 1% level by a dispersant, sodium polyacrylate, which might represent a high level of anionic contaminants in a paper mill system. Laboratory tests were conducted to show the effects on dewatering, fine-particle retention, and flocculation. These tests were supplemented with measurements of charge demand, zeta potential, and handsheet properties. Sequential addition of cationic glyoxylated acrylamide copolymers (gPAM) and CMS were found to strongly promote dewatering. Two gPAM products and a poly(vinylamine) product in sequential addition with CMS were very effective for promoting fine-particle retention. These same sequential treatments of the stock contributed to moderate fiber flocculation, though severe flocculation was caused by further treatment of the furnish with colloidal silica. Handsheet strength results were mixed. In the default recycled copy paper furnish, the average breaking length for the sheets made with cationic additives followed by CMS was not greatly different from the blank condition. Superior strength resulted when the default furnish was treated with a dispersant alone. When the dispersant-contaminated furnish was treated with the same combinations of cationic additives and CMS, the strength returned to the baseline achieved in the absence of the dispersant. The results were discussed in terms of the charged character of the different additives and their interactions not only with the fiber surfaces but also with each other.

Quantification of hardwood black liquor contamination in pine black liquor, TAPPI Journal February 2024

February 01, 2024

ABSTRACT: The presence of hardwood black liquor contamination in pine black liquor can negatively impact brownstock washer and evaporator operation, as well as reduce soap separation and yield. It is also believed to negatively impact commercial kraft lignin production. It was desired to develop a method of quantitatively determining the amount of low-level hardwood liquor contamination in pine black liquor. A method employing pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) was developed to perform the desired measurement. Laboratory cooks with carefully controlled blends of pine and hardwood chips were prepared, and the resulting liquor was measured using this technique. Additionally, samples of pine and hardwood black liquors were blended in known quantities and analyzed. All these samples were submitted as blind samples. The resulting analysis suggests the py-GCMS method was able to accurately determine the level of hardwood contamination between 1% to 10% hardwood liquor using a low-level calibration curve prepared with coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol as standards.

The role of hornification in the deterioration mechanism of physical properties of unrefined eucalyptus fibers during paper recycling, TAPPI Journal February 2024

February 01, 2024

ABSTRACT: Physical properties of cellulosic paper deteriorate significantly during paper recycling, which hinders the sustainable development of the paper industry. This work investigates the property deterioration mechanism and the role of hornification in the recycling process of unrefined eucalyptus fibers. The results showed that during the recycling process, the hornification gradually deepened, the fiber width gradually decreased, and the physical properties of the paper also gradually decreased. After five cycles of reuse, the relative bonding area decreased by 17.6%, while the relative bonding force decreased by 1.8%. Further results indicated that the physical property deterioration of the paper was closely related to the decrease of fiber bonding area. The fiber bonding area decreased linearly with the reduction of re-swollen fiber width during paper recycling. Re-swollen fiber width was closely related to the hornification. Hornification mainly reduces the bonding area of unrefined eucalyptus fiber rather than the bonding force. The work elucidates the role of hornification in the recycling process of unrefined eucalyptus fibers and the deterioration mechanism of paper physical properties, which will be helpful to control the property deterioration of paper and achieve a longer life cycle.

Dynamic out-of-plane compression of paperboard — Influence of impact velocity on the surface, TAPPI Journal February 2024

February 01, 2024

ABSTRACT: Processes that convert paperboard into finished products include, for example, printing, where the paperboard is subjected to rapid Z-directional (ZD) compression in the print nip. However, measuring and evaluating the relevant properties in the thickness direction of paperboard are not necessarily straightforward or easy. Measuring at relevant, millisecond deformation rates further complicates the problem. The aim of the present work is to elucidate some of the influences on the compressive stiffness. Both the initial material response and the overall compressibility of the paperboard is studied. In this project, the effect on the material response from the surface structure and the millisecond timescale recovery is explored.The method utilized is a machine called the Rapid ZD-tester. The device drops a probe in freefall on the substrate and records the probe position, thus acquiring the deformation of the substrate. The probe is also allowed to bounce several times on the surface for consecutive impacts before being lifted for the next drop. To investigate the time dependent stiffness behavior, the probe is dropped several times at the same XY position on the paperboard from different heights, thus achieving different impact velocities. The material response from drops and bounces combined allows study of the short-term recovery of the material. The material in the study is commercial paperboard. The paperboard samples are compared to material where the surface has been smoothed by grinding it. Our study shows that there is a non-permanent reduction in thickness and a stiffening per bounce of the probe, indicating a compaction that has not recovered in the millisecond timescale. Additionally, a higher impact velocity has an initial stiffening effect on the paperboard, and this is reduced by smoothing the surface.