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About TAPPI Journal

An internationally recognized technical publication for over 60 years, TAPPI Journal (TJ) publishes the latest and most relevant research on the forest products and related industries in digital format. A stringent peer-review process and distinguished editorial board of academic and industry experts set TAPPI Journal apart as a reliable source for impactful basic and applied research and technical reviews. TAPPI Journal is now Open Access. Read more.

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Editorial: Change, reality, and vision in the pulp and paper industry, TAPPI Journal February 2021

February 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Change is inevitable and is a constant in our lives. Change is especially evident in this era of whirlwind, revolutionary break-throughs in communication and control technology. If nothing else, the past year has certainly made this clear.

Key material properties in crease cracking of kraft paper, TAPPI Journal February 2021

February 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Crease cracking of paperboard is important to control for the appearance and structural integrity of packages. Crease cracking is affected by creasing operation variables, as well as the physical properties of the paperboard. However, the effects of the physical properties are not clearly known. The objectives of this work were to identify the key material properties that affect crease cracking and to clarify the effects of fiber composition and starch. Laboratory sheets were produced from bleached and refined softwood and hardwood commercial pulp at grammage and thicknesses that match a typical paperboard. To mimic papermaking operations, surface starch was applied via a bench-top size press. The sheets were creased in the lab over a range of penetration depths, and reverse-side cracking was measured. The results showed that less reverse-side cracking was correlated with higher tensile post-peak energy, a lower bending stress, and a lower z-direction (ZD) stiffness. The tensile post-peak energy is a measure of the resistance to crack growth via fiber-bridging. The bending force and the ZD stiffness influence the forces that create cracks. It was observed that decreasing the ratio of hard-wood-to-softwood content and reducing the amount of starch would both decrease crease cracking.

An evaluation of household tissue softness, TAPPI Journal February 2021

February 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: This study extends our 2019 paper, a study of the softness of household tissues using a tissue softness analyzer (TSA) and hand-felt panels. It revisits the softness theory of Holger Hollmark by applying a reciprocal matrix approach to measure sheet bulk softness and surface softness, and then make comparisons with the results obtained using a TSA instrument. We ascertained that there was a high correlation of R=0.904 between panel-corrected hand-felt (CHF) softness and TSA softness (TSA-HF); and a low correlation of R=-0.678 between panel-corrected hand-felt surface softness (CHSS) and TSA smoothness (TS-750). Three hunches about TSA measurements were confirmed: 1) Hollmark’s theory was confirmed by a high correlation coefficient (R=0.895) between CHF and CHSS softness, indicating that the two parameters are mutually dependent; 2) TS-750 differs from CHSS and has partial influence on TSA-HF results with a correlation of R = -0.510; and 3) although TS-750 has only limited influences on TSA-HF, further opportunities for their application can be provided using pertinent regression equations.

A case study review of wood ash land application programs in North America, TAPPI Journal February 2021

February 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: Several regulatory agencies and universities have published guidelines addressing the use of wood ash as liming material for agricultural land and as a soil amendment and fertilizer. This paper summarizes the experiences collected from several forest products facility-sponsored agricultural application programs across North America. These case studies are characterized in terms of the quality of the wood ash involved in the agricultural application, approval requirements, recommended management practices, agricultural benefits of wood ash, and challenges confronted by ash generators and farmers during storage, handling, and land application of wood ash.Reported benefits associated with land-applying wood ash include increasing the pH of acidic soils, improving soil quality, and increasing crop yields. Farmers apply wood ash on their land because in addition to its liming value, it has been shown to effectively fertilize the soil while maintaining soil pH at a level that is optimal for plant growth. Given the content of calcium, potassium, and magnesium that wood ash supplies to the soil, wood ash also improves soil tilth. Wood ash has also proven to be a cost-effective alternative to agricultural lime, especially in rural areas where access to commercial agricultural lime is limited. Some of the challenges identified in the review of case studies include lengthy application approvals in some jurisdictions; weather-related issues associated with delivery, storage, and application of wood ash; maintaining consistent ash quality; inaccurate assessment of required ash testing; potential increased equipment maintenance; and misconceptions on the part of some farmers and government agencies regarding the effect and efficacy of wood ash on soil quality and crop productivity.

Modeling and parameter optimization of the papermaking processes by using regression tree model and full factorial design, TAPPI Journal February 2021

February 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: One of the major challenges in the pulp and paper industry is taking advantage of the large amount of data generated through its processes in order to develop models for optimization purposes, mainly in the papermaking, where the current practice for solving optimization problems is the error-proofing method. First, the multiple linear regression technique is applied to find the variables that affect the output pressure controlling the gap of the paper sheet between the rod sizer and spooner sections, which is the main cause of paper breaks. As a measure to determine the predictive capacity of the adjusted model, the coefficient of determination (R2) and s values for the output pressure were considered, while the variance inflation factor was used to identify and eliminate the collinearity problem. Considering the same amount of data available by using machine learning, the regression tree was the best model based on the root mean square error (RSME) and R2. To find the optimal operating conditions using the regression tree model as source of output pressure measurement, a full factorial design was developed. Using an alpha level of 5%, findings show that linear regression and the regression tree model found only four independent variables as significant; thus, the regression tree model demonstrated a clear advantage over the linear regression model alone by improving operating conditions and demonstrating less variability in output pressure. Furthermore, in the present work, it was demonstrated that the adjusted models with good predictive capacity can be used to design noninvasive experiments and obtain.

Continuous tannin extraction by use of screw reactor, TAPPI Journal February 2021

February 01, 2021

ABSTRACT: A pilot-size screw reactor (extraction unit) was used for tannin extraction of spruce. Yield of the same magnitude or better was obtained when comparing a screw reactor with batch reactors. A longer presoaking time in water seemed to be better than a short one for obtaining higher yield. A higher yield is obtained with lower dry-water ratio, which suggests that the internal diffusion in bark does not determine mass transfer as much as is the case without presoaking of bark. The higher dry-water ratio decreased the yield. The prior soaking of the bark also minimized the mechanical reactor feeding problems (clogging). The benefits of a screw reactor likely are that run time changes for different process conditions are flexible; it simplifies design and construction of an industrial unit for tannin production; and it saves space because of the need for fewer and smaller intermediate storage tanks.