Abbreviations & Acronyms

Abbreviation Meaning
A ampere; used to represent "acid wash" in some bleaching sequence nomenclature
Å Angstrom
AA active alkali; spell out first time
AB Aktiebolaget (Swedish equivalent of "Co."); always use abbrev.
ABTCP Associação Brasileira Tècnica de Celulose e Papel (Brazilian Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry); spell out first time
ac alternating current (noun and adj.); use abbrev.
AC alkali cellulose; spell out first time
ACFM actual cubic feet per minute; use "actual ft3/min" first time
ACS American Chemical Society; spell out first time
ACV autocovariance, process control
a.d. air-dry, air-dried
A.D. anno domini; number follows: A.D. 500
admt air dried metric ton
AF&PA American Forest & Paper Association (formerly the American Paper Institute, API)
AG Aktiengesellschaft (German equivalent of "Co."); always use abbrev.
AHQ anthrahydroquinone, C6H4(OH)2,the reduced form of anthraquinone
A·h ampere-hour
AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers
AICC Association of Independent Corrugated Converters
AISI American Iron and Steel Institute
AKD alkylketene dimer
a.m. time from midnight to noon
ANM Australian Newsprint Mills
ANSI American National Standards Institute; spell out first time
AOX adsorbable organic halogens, spell out first time
APA American Pulpwood Association or American Plywood Association; spell out first time
API American Paper Institute; now the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA)
APMA American Paper Machinery Association
Appita Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry
AQ anthraquinone; spell out first time
AR analytical reagent; spell out first time
ARL average run length
ASA alkenyl succinic anhydride
ASB aerated stabilization basin
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials; spell out first time; Philadelphia
ATCP Asociacion Tecnica de la Celulosa y el Papel de Chile
ATICELCA Associazione Tecnica Italiana per la Cellulosa e la Carta (The Technical Association of the Italian Pulp and Paper Industry)
ATIP Association Technique de l’Industrie Papetiére (French pulp and paper technical association)
ATIPCA Asociación de Tècnicos de la Industria Papelera y Celu (Argentine pulp and paper technical association)
atm atmosphere(s)
at. wt. atomic weight
avg. average; use abbreviation only in tables
AWG American Wire Gauge; spell out first time in text (except with numbers in tables)
BACT best available control technology; spell out first time
BAT best available technology; spell out first time
bbl barrel
B.C. before Christ, number first: 500 B.C.
BCMP bisulfate chemimechanical pulp
BCTMP bisulphate chemithermomechanical pulp
BHMT bis(hexamethylene)triamine resin
bhp brake horsepower
bhp·h brake horsepower Chour
bis roman
BLRBAC Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Advisory Committee
bmep brake mean effective pressure; spell out first time
BOD biochemical oxygen demand; always use abbrev.
BOPP biaxially oriented polypropylene
BPCT best practicable control technology; spell out first time
BPR boiling point rise
Btu British thermal unit(s)
BWG boiler wall gauge; spell out first time
C centigrade; close up (50°C)
C1S coated one side (middle character is the number one); spell out first time
C2S coated two sides; spell out first time
CA committee assignment
CAD computer-aided drafting
cal calorie
CBE Council of Biology Editors, spell out first time
cc do not use; use cm3 (cubic centimeters) for solid volumes and ml for fluid volumes
CCD charge-coupled device
CD cross direction; spell out first time
CDAS cationic dialdehyde starch
CED cupriethylenediamine
CEK caustic extraction kappa no.
CF chlorine factor= %Cl2/kappa no.
CFC chlorinated fluorocarbon (also chlorofluorocarbon)
CFM cubic feet per minute; use "ft?/min" always
CFS cubic feet per second; use "ft3/s" always
cg centigram
CGS centimeter-gram-second; use SI units
Ci curie
cis italics
cL centiliter
CLC cylindrical laboratory coater, made by Sensor and Simulation Products, a division of Weyerhaeuser Paper Co.
CLT Concora liner test
cm centimeter
CMP chemimechanical pulp
CMT Concora medium test
COD chemical oxygen demand; always use abbrev.
COPACEL Confèdèration Francaise de L’Industrie des Papiers, Cartons et Celluloses
cos cosine
cot cotangent
cP viscosity, centiPoise
CP chemically pure; spell out first time
CPPA Canadian Pulp and Paper Association (trade association)
CPPA/TS Technical Section of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Assoc.
CPET crystallized polyethylene; spell out first time; use carefully, PET is also polyethylene terephthalate
CPS cycles per second
CPVC chlorinated polyvinyl chloride; spell out first time
CRM chemirefiner mechanical pulping
CRT cathode ray tube
csc cosecant
CSF Canadian standard freeness; measured in ml; always use abbrev.
CSLM confocal scanning laser microscope
CSMA carrier sense multiple access
CTLF chemical treatment of long fibered pulp
CTMP chemithermomechanical pulp
D daltons (atomic mass unit)
d deci
d first derivative; italics
D- (and L- or DL-) prefixes for stereochemical isomers
d- (and e- orde-) prefixes for optically active compound; lower case, italics
da deka
daN deka-Newton; spell out first time
dBA weighted sound pressure level (ANSI SI. 4-1971)
DBH diameter at breast height
dc direct current (noun and adj.); use abbrev.
DCS distributed control system
DDC direct digital control
DOB diameter outside bark; spell out first time
DP degree of polymerization; spell out first time
DSCF dry standard cubic foot (feet); use "dry std. ft3" first time
DTPA diaminetriethylenepentaacetic acid
EA effective alkali; spell out
ECF elemental chlorine free
ECT edge crush test or edgewise compression testing
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; a chelating agent (chelant)
EEC European Economic Community
EF English finish; spell out first time
EJC Engineers Joint Council; spell out first time
ENPTM extended nip press, a registered trademark of Beloit Corp.
emf electromotive force
EOCl extractable organically bound chlorine
EPA U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
epm equivalents per million; spell out first time
ESCA electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ESP electrostatic precipitator
ESR electron spin resonance
EuCePa European Liason Committee for Pulp and Paper; an umbrella association for some 20 paper industry scientific societies in Europe
EVA ethylene vinyl acetate; spell out first time
EVOH ethylene vinyl alcohol; spell out first time
FBA Fibre Box Association
FBK fully bleached kraft
FBM footboard measure; spell out first time
FD forced draft
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FEFCO Fèdèration Europèenne des Fabricants de Carton Ondule (European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers)
FKBG Fourdrinier Kraft Board Group
FRP fiberglass-reinforced polyester
FFT fast Fourier transform
FTIR Fourier transforrn infrared
GCC ground calcium carbonate
GEMS General Energy and Materials Balance System, a computer modeling program
GEP good engineering practice; do not use
GERS brightness use as is; do not confuse with GE (GE recording brightness) spectrophotometer
GeV gigaelectronvolt(s)
gf2d use gal/ft2/day
GHz gigahertz
GLC gas-liquid chromotography
GmbH Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung; always use abbrev., similar to "Inc." in U.S.
GSM do not use; use g/m2
ha hectare; spell out first time
HDPE high-density polyethylene
HAP hazardous air pollutant
HAZ heat-affected zone
HAZMAT hazardous materials
HHV higher heating value
HIP high-impact polypropylene
HIPS high-impact polystyrene
HRSG heat recovery steam generator; spell out
HVAC heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
HVLC high-volume, low concentration
I, J  
ICP inductively coupled plasma
ID induced draft, or inside diameter
ihp indicated horsepower; spell out first time
INDA International Nonwovens and Disposables Assoc. (trade)
IPCEA Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association; spell out first time
IPPTA Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association
IPS iron pipe size; spell out first time
IPST Institute of Paper Science and Technology (since 1989); formerly, Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC)
ISA Instrument Society of America
ISO International Standards Organization; spell out first time
J joules; abbreviate in SI units
K, L  
k kilo-, as a prefix, generally equals 1000 (kilobyte = 1024 bytes)
K number permanganate number, use P number
kbf thousand board feet; spell out first time
KCL The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute (Oy Keskuslaboratorio-Centrallaboratori um AB)
kPa kilopascals
ksi kilopounds per square inch (used to avoid zeros when measurements are taken in thousands of pounds); spell out first time
kW kilowatt
kW·h kilowatt-hour
L liter
L- (and D- or DL-) prefixes for sterochemical isomers; small caps
l- (and d-or dl-) prefixes for optically active compounds; lower case italics
LAER lowest achievable emission rate; spell out first time
LDPE low-densisty polyethylene
LHV lower heating value
LLDPE linear low-density polyethylene
loc. cit. do not use
LSOC Local Sections Operations Council (spell out first time)
LVDT linear variable displacement transducer
LVHC low-volume, high concentration
LWC lightweight coated
m meter
m- meta; chemical prefix; italics
Mbf million board feet; spell out first time
MACT maximum achievable control technology
MAP Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MAPPS Modular Analysis of Pulp and Paper Systems
MBO management by objective
MCC modified continuous cooking; also, motor control center
MD machine direction; spell out first time
MDPE medium density polyethylene; spell out first time
MF machine finish; spell out first time
MFR melamine formaldehyde resin; spell out first time
MG machine-glazed; spell out first time
MKS meter-kilogram-second
mL milliliter
MLVSS mixed liquor volatile suspended solids; spell out first time
mmf magnetomotive force; spell out first time; small mm to avoid confusion with M = million
MOTAG Millyard Operations Technical Advancement Group (south)
MOTG Millyard Operator’s Group-(north)
MTBF mean time between failures
MUFR melamine urea formaldehyde resin; spell out first time
MWL milled wood lignin; spell out first time
n- normal; chemical prefix; italic
N newtons (force)
N normality; italic; close up with value (0.1N)
NAAQS national ambient air quality standards; spell out first time
NBSK northern bleached softwood kraft; a specific type of pulp
NCASI The National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement
NCG noncondensible gas(es)
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association; spell out first time
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NPDES national pollutants discharge elimination system
NPTA National Paper Trade Association
NSSC neutral sulfite semichemical; a pulping process; spell out first time
o- ortho; chemical prefix; italic
OCC old corrugated containers
o.d. ovendry (adj.)
OD outside diameter
ohm-l mho
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
op. cit. do not use
OPP oriented polypropylene
OZEPA Austrian Association of Pulp and Paper Chemists and Engineers
P, Q  
p- para; chemical prefix; italic
PAT performance attribute
PCC precipitated calcium carbonate
PE polyethylene
PEI polyethyleneimine; spell out first time
PET polyethylene terephthalate; spell out first time
PETG copolymer of cyclohexane dimethanol and ethylene terephthalate
PIMA Paper Industry Management Association
PIRA Research Association for the Paper & Board, Printing and Packaging Industries (UK)
PITA Paper Industry Technical Association (UK)
PLC programmable logic controller. Do not use for Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Division.
p.m. the time from noon to midnight
PP polypropylene
ppb parts per billion
PPC polyphthalate carbonate; spell out first time
ppm parts per million
PPMMA Pulp and Paper Machinery Manufacturers Assoc.; now the American Paper Machinery Association (APMA)
PPO polyphenylene oxide
PS polysulfone; spell out first time
PSD prevention of significant deterioration; spell out first time
psi pounds per square inch; recommended measurement is kilopascals (kPa)
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene
PVDC polyvinylidene chloride
PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RDH rapid displacement heating; spell out first time
Re Reynolds number, not subscripted
RF radio frequency; spell out first time
Rf chromatography value; italics
RI revolution indicator or refractive index; do not use
rkVA reactive kvars
RTD resistance temperature device
RTDM rough terrain dispersion model; spell out first time
s second
SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
SBR styrene-butadiene rubber latex; spell out first time
SBK semibleached kraft
SCC stress corrosion cracking
SCM use "std. m3" first time
SDCM use "std. dry m3" first time
SPCI Swedish Pulp and Paper Engineers Society
SPHE Society of Packaging and Handling Engineers
SPY Finnish Paper Engineers Society
SR number Schopper-Riegler; °SR
SRS surface receptivity and smoothness tester; spell out first time
SS suspended solids
STAP Special Technical Association Publication (archaic)
STFI Swedish Pulp and Paper Research Institute (Skogsindustrins Tekniska Forskningsinstitut)
STIG steam-injected gas turbine
SVP single vessel process; spell out first time
TAPPI Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry; always capitalize
TCDD tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
TCDF tetrachlorodibenzofuran
TCF totally chlorine free
TDS total dissolved solids
TEA tensile energy absorption; spell out first time
THC total hydrocarbon
Tg glass transition temperature
TIC temperature indicator controller; spell out first time
TI Sheets Technical Information Sheets, now known as TIPs: Technical Information Papers; (spell out first time; initial caps)
TIPs Technical Information Papers; spell out on first reference
TLC thin layer chromatography
TL median toxicity level
TLV threshold limit value
TMP thermomechanical pulp
TOC total organic carbon or Technical Operations Council (spell out first time)
tpa tons per annum, tons per year
tpd tons per day; use tons/day
tpy tons per year; use tons/year
TSO tensile strength orientation; spell out first time
TSS total suspended solids
U, V, W  
U activity unit
UBK unbleached softwood kraft; spell out first time
UFGL ultrafine ground limestone; spell out first time
USP U.S. Pharmacopoeia
VOC volatile organic compound
VSS volatile suspended solids
VTT Technical Research Center of Finland (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus)
WBL weak black liquor
WF water finish; spell out first time
wg water gauge
WVP water vapor permeability; spell out first time
WVTR water vapor transmission rate; spell out first time
WRV water retention value; spell out first time
X, Y, Z  
yr. year; spell out 
ZELLCHEMING German Association of Pulp and Paper Chemists and Engineers