Literature Cited

As a general rule: In text and for literature cited, set titles in italics, capitalize only the first word of articles, but treat book titles as proper names.

Starting with the March 1996 issue (Vol. 79, No. 3), the proper spelling for the journal is TAPPI JOURNAL -- all caps and in italics. Use TAPPI J. in references.

As background, TAPPI began publishing "Technical Association Papers" as part of the "Paper Trade Journal." In January of 1949, it started publishing its own magazine: Tappi. That was Vol. 32, No.1. The name was changed to Tappi Journal with the September 1982 issue (Vol. 65, No. 9).

When referencing material from a specific issue, use the spelling used at the time: Tappi, Tappi Journal (Tappi J.), or TAPPI JOURNAL (TAPPI J.).


  • Issue number in parentheses.
  • No comma after name of periodical
  • Close up volume and issue numbers, initial page number and year
  • Initial page number only, not inclusive pages.
  • Year only (not month) in parentheses.
  • Abbreviate periodical names
  • Period at end of reference.


  • Allan, G.G., Carroll, J.P., Negri, A.R., et al., Tappi J., 75(1): 175(1992).
  • Sanborn, J.R., Paper Trade J. 149(27): 34(1965).
  • Smith, A.B., Jones, X.Y., and Doe, M.W., Pulp Paper Mag. Can. 32(4): 781(1965).
  • Cite authors by last name, comma, initials. Put a space between the initials. If only two authors, no comma between them. If more than three authors, cite first three, followed byet al.


Meetings and Conferences

  • Cite authors by last name, comma, initials. If only two authors, no comma between them. If more than three authors, list first three, followed by et al.
  • Italicize conference name
  • Publisher and city follow proceedings title. Show state or country only if city is obscure.
  • Initial page number only, not inclusive pages.
  • Period at end of reference.
  • Prior to 1978, TAPPI Conference Proceedings should be designated as "Preprints."


  • Brociner, R.E. and Beazley, K.M., TAPPI 1995 Coating Conference Proceedings, TAPPI PRESS, Atlanta, p. 411.



  • Roymoulir, S.K. and Brown, K.J., U. S. pat. 3,832,276 (Aug. 27, 1974).


  • Jackson A. L., Air Pollution Control, Academic Press, New York, 1965, pp. 307-315.
  • Hine, J., Physical Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965, p. 68.
  • In publisher’s name, leave out such things as Book Co., Publishing Co., Inc.

Section of Book

  • Stapler, O.P. and Lewis, M.W. in Pulp Bleaching (C. E. Flurm, Ed.) 4th edn., Interscience, New York, 1960, Chap. 6.
  • Lizard, P. in Papermaking A Go-Go (S. T. Washer, Ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1907, pp. 467-534.

Monograph and STAP

When chapter is given:

  • Maxwell, C.S. in "Wet Strength in Paper and Paperboard," Monograph No. 29, (J. P. Weidner, Ed.), TAPPI, Atlanta, 1965, pp. 23-26.

When no chapter is given:

  • Weidner, J.P., Ed., "Wet strength in paper and paperboard," Monograph No. 29, TAPPI, Atlanta, 1965.

When Monograph or STAP has no editor, and no chapter is cited:

  • Paper coating additives," Monograph No. 25, TAPPI, Atlanta, 1965.
  • "Preparation, circulation, and storage of corrugating adhesives," STAP No. 3, TAPPI, Atlanta, 1965.


  • Scholar, A.G., "Polyethyleneimine resins," Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1959.

Unpublished Material

  • Arthur, A.A., personal communication.
  • Smith, X.Y., Paper Trade J., in press. 
    (Use only if paper has been accepted and is awaiting publication.)
  • Jones, Y.Z., Studies on alkali-cellulose aging, paper presented at the 50th TAPPI Annual Meeting, New York, Feb. 21-25, 1965.
  • When reference is made to an unpublished material, always check to see if it has been published since the manuscript was submitted.

TAPPI Test Methods and TIP Sheets

  • TAPPI T 808 om-81 "Flat crush test of corrugated board."
  • TAPPI TIP 0414-01 "Instrument symbols and nomenclature."

Internet References

The internet has become a useful, though not completely trusted, source for information. The format for citing online sources is still evolving, although formats developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) are most widely accepted. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is also working on a reference standard.

When citing information obtained from the internet, the intent is to guide the reader to the electronic, as well as the original, sources for the information. In general, a reference should include the title and author (if known), the complete address for the document, the sponsoring organization or individual, and a date for when the information was obtained, if possible. Include additonal information that may help readers locate the original source for information "republished" on the internet. If the address can not be listed in full on one line, space after a slash(/) to break it to the next line. That avoids adding a hyphen that could be confused to be part of the address.

A general format is as follows:

  • Jones, T. "Roman corn and grains." Presented at the Food Resources Conference, December 1996, Washington, DC, The World Food Bank. Available [Online] corn/history/Europe/Roman3.html> [25Sept1997].

For a more complete discourse and guide to citing electronic information, see:

  • Crouse, M. Citing electronic information in history papers, October 1997, Univ. of Memphis.
  • Stellmach, A, and Sidler, M. Citing electronic sources (#110). June 1996. Purdue University.
  • Tent, J. Citation guides for electronic documents. ifla/I/training/citation/citing.html. 
    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. The Hague.
  • ISO/TC 46/SC 9 Secretariat. Excerpts from International Standard ISO 690-2. (30Sept97) National Library of Canada, Ottawa.

Miscellaneous Notes on References

  • Chap., not Ch.
  • Do not use ibid.
  • Booklet titles are roman and in quotation marks.
  • Rept., not report.
  • For more than three authors, list first three authors, then et al.

Commonly Used Periodicals and Abbreviations

Agricultural Research
Agri. Res.

American Journal of Science
American J. Sci.

American Papermaker
Southern Pulp Paper Mfr. (issues prior to April 1980)
Southern Pulp Paper (issues April 1980 to 1985)
American Papermaker (issues after 1985)
PIMA’s North American Papermaker (since 1997)

Analytical Biochemistry
Anal. Biochem.

Analytical Chemistry
Anal. Chem.

Appita Journal
Appita J.

Applied Mechanics
Appl. Mech.

ASHRAE Journal

Biochemical Journal
Biochem. J.

Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Biotech. Bioeng.

Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
Can. J. Chem. Eng.

Carton and Cellulose Papier
Carton Cell. Papier

Cellulose Chemistry and Technology
Cell. Chem. Tech.

Chemical Abstracts

Chemical and Engineering News
Chem. Eng. News

Chemical Engineering and Technology
Chem. Eng. Tech.

Chemical Engineering Journal
Chem. Eng. J.

Chemical Engineering Science
Chem. Eng. Sci.

Environmental Science and Technology
Environ. Sci. Tech.

Fiber Science and Technology
Fiber Sci. Tech.

Fibre Chemistry
Fibre Chem.

Forest Industries
Forest Ind.

Forest Products Journal
Forest Prod. J.

Industrial Engineering
Ind. Eng.

International Nonwovens Bulletin
Intl. Nonwovens Bull.

International Paper Board Industry
Intl. Paper Board Ind.

International Papermaker
Intl. Papermaker

International Textile Bulletin
Intl. Textile Bull.

Iron and Steel Engineer
Iron Steel Eng.

Issues in Science and Technology
Issues Sci. Tech.

Japan Tappi Journal
Japan Tappi J.

Journal of Aerosol Science
J. Aerosol Sci.

Journal of Aerosol Technology
J. Aerosol Tech.

Journal of Agricultural Engineering
J. Agri. Eng.

Journal of Applied Mechanics
J. Appl. Mech.

Journal of Biochemistry
J. Biochem.

Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
J. Chem. Tech. Biotech.

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
J. Coll. Int. Sci.

Journal of Composite Materials
J. Composite Matl.

Journal of Forestry
J. Forestry

Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
J. Mech. Eng. Sci.

Journal of Organic Chemistry
J. Org. Chem.

Journal of Physics and Chemistry
J. Phys. Chem.

Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting
J. Plastic Film Sheeting

Journal of Pulp and Paper Science
J. Pulp Paper Sci.

Journal of the American Chemical Society
J. Am. Chem. Soc.

Journal of the Society of Fiber Science and Technology
J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech.

Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology
J. Vac. Sci. Tech.

Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology
J. Wood Chem. Tech.

Korean Tappi Journal
Korean Tappi J.

Nonwovens Industry
Nonwovens Ind.

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal
Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.

Package Printing and Converting
Package Printing Conv.

Packaging Technology and Science
Packaging Tech. Sci.

Paper, Film and Foil Converter
Paper Film Foil Conv.

Paper Industry
Paper Ind.

Paper Industry Management Association
PIMA; acquired the Papermaker magazines in 1997 and became
PIMA’s North American Papermaker

Paper Southern Africa
Paper S. Africa

Paper Technology
Paper Tech.

Paper Technology and Industry
Paper Tech. Ind.

Paper Trade Journal
Paper Trade J.

Paperi ja Puu
Paperi Puu

Physical Review
Phys. Rev.

Physical Science
Phys. Sci.

Progress in Paper Recycling
Prog. Paper Recycling

Pulp and Paper International
Pulp Paper Intl.

Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada
Pulp Paper Mag. Can. (issues prior to September 1974)
Pulp Paper Can. (issues September 1974 and after)
Pulp & Paper

Pulp and Paper Week
Pulp Paper Wk.

Pure and Applied Chemistry
Pure Appl. Chem.

Research and Development Magazine
Res. Dev. Mag.

Svensk Papperstidning
Svensk Papperstid.

Tappi (issues prior to September 1982)
Tappi J. (issues September 1982 through February 1996)
TAPPI J. (issues March 1996 and after)

Textile Chemist and Colorist
Textile Chem. Color.

Textile Research Journal
Textile Res. J.

Textile Science and Technology
Textile Sci. Tech.

Textile Technology Digest
Textile Tech. Digest

Wood and Fiber Science
Wood Fiber Sci.

Wood and Wood Products
Wood & Wood Prod.

Wood Machine News
Wood Mach. News

Wood Science and Technology
Wood Sci. Tech.

Wood Technology
Wood Tech.